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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: An Overview Ko Barrett Deputy Director NOAA Climate Program Office 7 February 2013 1.

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Presentation on theme: "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: An Overview Ko Barrett Deputy Director NOAA Climate Program Office 7 February 2013 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: An Overview Ko Barrett Deputy Director NOAA Climate Program Office 7 February 2013 1

2 The International Climate Family Tree World Climate Conference WCC1: World Climate Research Program/Intergovernment al Panel on Climate Change WCC2: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change WCC3: Global Framework for Climate Services 2 197919912009

3 What is the UNFCCC? 3 An international treaty to cooperatively consider what can be done to limit climate change and cope with climate impacts Goal is to: Stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations “at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system…within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened, and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.”

4 Timeline of the Negotiations 1992199419972005200720092010 UNFCCC adopted 1990 UNFCCC negotiations begin UNFCCC enters into force Kyoto Protocol adopted Kyoto enters into force Bali Action Plan Copenhagen Accord Cancun Agreements 2011 Durban Platform 2012 Doha Gateway ---------------------------

5 2009: The Copenhagen Accord High expectations + poor leadership = failure Set a global goal to hold increase in temperature below 2°C Provided for mitigation commitments from both developed and developing countries – Specific targets for developed countries – Specific actions for developing countries Recognized crucial role of reducing deforestation, need for enhanced technology, adaptation and use of markets Called for scaled up financing – Approaching $30 billion between 2010 and 2012 – Goal of mobilizing $100 billion/year by 2020 Photo Source: ENB MRV

6 Associations with the Accord 116 Countries, representing over 80% of global GHG emissions Includes major countries (e.g., US, China, India, and Brazil) Source: WRI and UNFCCC

7 Mitigation Actions Listed Brazil: 36-39% below business as usual by 2020 China: 40-45% reduction in emissions intensity below 2005 by 2020 EU: 20-30% below 1990 levels by 2020 India: 20-25% reduction in emissions intensity below 2005 by 2020 Indonesia: 26-41% below business as usual by 2020 Japan: 25% below 1990 by 2020, contingent on others acting Mexico: up to 30% below business as usual by 2020 USA: in the range of 17% below 2005 levels by 2020, in conformity with US legislation

8 2010: The Cancun Agreements Low expectations + excellent leadership = success Built upon elements in the Copenhagen Accord to reach agreement on: – Shared Vision – Enhanced Action on Mitigation – Adaptation – Transparency – Finance – Reduced Emissions from Deforestation – Technology Photo Source: ENB

9 2011: The Durban Platform The Durban Platform launched “a process to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention” The new legal agreement will be “applicable to all Parties” Negotiations on the future agreement will: Conclude by 2015 Enter into effect from 2020 Photo Source: ENB

10 2012 Negotiations Transitional year that closed one chapter of negotiations and opened a new one Made progress on implementing the Copenhagen, Cancun and Durban decisions Many focused on the Kyoto Protocol Photo Source: ENB

11 Kyoto Protocol Second commitment period 2013-2020 A subset of countries signed on to the second commitment period (EU, NOR, AUS, CH) 15% Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Emissions Trading to continue Nitrogen Triflouride (NF 3 ) added (GWP= 17k)

12 Mitigation Parties agreed to establish a two-year work program to continue the process of clarifying and understanding countries' mitigation pledges Parallel structure for developed and developing countries – Both groups communicate targets or actions, and these will be recorded in formal UNFCCC document – Both groups subject to reporting, review and oversight – Parties submit their first biennial reports in 2014 12 IPCC Emissions Scenarios

13 Transparency: Monitoring, Reporting and Verification To build confidence that countries are implementing their mitigation efforts. Developed CountriesDeveloping Countries Agreed biennial report guidelines Agreed biennial update report guidelines Agreed international assessment and review (IAR) modalities and procedures Agreed international consultation and analysis (ICA) modalities and guidelines Agreed a registry will be used as voluntary reporting tool on the web for activities seeking international support or recognition

14 Markets Agreed to design a new UNFCCC-administered market mechanism Established a Framework to link the UNFCCC and market-based mechanisms that Parties develop Created a work program to elaborate functions of the framework, including: Procedures to assure environmental integrity Technical specifications for a tracking and transparency system Source: Scientific American

15 Reduced Emissions from Deforestation Guidance for a “REDD+” mechanism – Benchmarks for measuring emissions reductions – Reaffirmed importance of social and environmental safeguards Finance sources include: – Public and private – Bilateral and multilateral – Market-based measures and offsets

16 Science is integrated throughout the activities of the Convention There is an agenda item that considers work of specific global observing systems and international and regional research organizations Research Dialogue provides an opportunity for Parties and these organizations to engage on scientific issues of relevance to the Convention Will hold a workshop in 2013 on scientific and technical aspects of ecosystems with high-carbon reservoirs not already addressed under the Convention Research and Systematic Observations

17 In 2011, Parties agreed to consider issues related to agriculture During 2012, Parties exchanged views but were unable to come to agreement on areas of work on this topic under the Convention Agriculture

18 Take away messages The negotiating process plods forward with incremental progress It will not create a significant policy demand for NACP science in the near- term However, advances in understanding of carbon and methane together with policy relevant actions in cities, CAB will matter

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