Old Kingdom 3,000 BC 2700 – 2200 BC2050-1652 BC Middle KingdomNew Kingdom 1567 – 1085 BC
Called the “Gift of the Nile” and the “Miracle of the Nile.” The yearly flooding of the Nile was predictable. Flooded, leaving a rich deposit of fertile soil that forms a delta. Hymn to the Nile – “The bringer of food, rich in provisions, creator of all good, lord of majesty, sweet of fragrance.”
Longest river in the world. (4,000 miles). Runs from the south to the north. Largest, most heavily populated cities are located near the arable land next to the Nile river.
Jean Francois Champollion cracked the code of Egyptian hieroglyphics with the Rosetta Stone. We could now read Egyptian hieroglyphics. The Rosetta Stone had three languages, Egyptian, demotic and Greek.
Filled with hope. Secure and confident. Sense of changelessness. Prosperous and stable. Belief in an afterlife.
Farmers – most people in Egypt were farmers. They paid taxes, lived in small villages, provided military service and labor for building projects. Pharaoh Grand Stewart or Vizier Upper class Nobles and Priests Merchants, Artisans, Scribes, and Tax collectors – strong middle class.
1. What is the Egyptian style of writing called? 2.What did scribes write on? 3.Of what value was the Rosetta Stone? 4.Who was the most powerful person in Egypt? 5.Which group made up the largest % of the population?
The Egyptians were polytheistic with over 2,000 gods and goddesses. The most important gods were the sun god, Ra, and land gods. Their gods provided balance between order and chaos. Sun god, Ra
Osiris was the god of the Underworld and resurrection. It is from the story of his death and resurrection, that Egyptians got their belief in the importance of mummification.
Isis was an important goddess. Her bringing together of Osiris’s body and his resurrection were symbolic of the new life brought with the Nile’s yearly flood.
Began in 3100 BC when King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt. He wore the double crown of Egypt. Menes established a dynasty of rulers or pharaohs. White crown-Upper Egypt and the Red Crown is for Lower Egypt.
Dynasty – a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on to their children. Power is usually transferred to the oldest male child.
Pharaoh – meant “great house” or “palace.” They had absolute power. Egyptian pharaoh’s were called the “Son of Ra.”
1. Were the Egyptians monotheistic or polytheistic? 2.Who was the god of the Underworld? 3.Who was the 1 st pharaoh to unite Egypt? 4.A line of rulers from the same family is called this… 5.What does the term pharaoh mean?
The greatest accomplishment of the Old Kingdom was – The building of the Great Pyramids at Giza.
The Great Pyramids were built by King Khufu in Giza – 2,540 BC. Largest and most magnificent of pyramids. Pyramids had supplies for the pharaoh to enjoy when he returned from the dead. Supplies included: food, games, weapons, and boats.
Guarding the Great Pyramids is the Great Sphinx. 240 ft long, 66 ft. high. It has the body of a lion and the head of a man, probably Khufu’s son, Khafre. The Great Sphinx
The process of mummifying a body was taken very seriously by priests. First, the major organs were removed, and then the body was drained of all fluids and dried with natron (salt) for about 3 months.
Then, the major organs were wrapped and placed in canopic jars. Finally, the body was carefully wrapped one layer at a time and placed in a sarcophagus.