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Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt

2 List the Three Kingdoms.
Egyptian Kingdoms Old Kingdom 3,000 BC Middle Kingdom New Kingdom 2700 – 2200 BC BC 1567 – 1085 BC List the Three Kingdoms.

3 The Gift of the Nile Called the “Gift of the Nile” and the “Miracle of the Nile.” The yearly flooding of the Nile was predictable. Flooded, leaving a rich deposit of fertile soil that forms a delta. Hymn to the Nile – “The bringer of food, rich in provisions, creator of all good, lord of majesty, sweet of fragrance.”

4 Unique Features of the Nile
Longest river in the world. (4,000 miles). Runs from the south to the north. Largest, most heavily populated cities are located near the arable land next to the Nile river. Comes from the Greek word “nelios” which means river valley.


6 Red Land and Black Land above
The Gift of the Nile Black land – name given to the fertile, farming land. Red land – name given to the land that is desert. The Red and the Black Land. A clear line of demarcation between the arable Black Land and the sterile Red Land of the desert has for time immemorial defined life for the Egyptians. In ancient times all cities, temples were on the Red Land in order to conserve the precious agricultural soil of the Black land. Red Land and Black Land above

7 Egyptian Prosperity Farming surplus – made Egypt a wealthy region.
Nile river unified Upper and Lower Egypt. Nile provided transportation and the ability to trade goods.

8 Egyptian Prosperity Natural barriers included deserts to their east and west, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. Natural barriers meant the Egyptians rarely feared invading armies.

9 Egyptian Writing Hieroglyphics – which means “priest carvings” or “sacred writings.” The Egyptian style of writing. Scribes wrote on papyrus, a reed found in the Nile. Papyrus=paper

10 Egyptian Writing Papyrus Reeds
Papyrus plants growing in a channel of the Nile Delta in Egypt Papyrus a member of the sedge family, was important in the daily life of ancient Egypt. The roots were used as fuel and the pith was eaten. Other usues of the papyrus plant included sandals, boats rope, mats, cloth, and most notably a paper-like writing material.

11 Egyptian Writing Jean Francois Champollion cracked the code of Egyptian hieroglyphics with the Rosetta Stone. We could now read Egyptian hieroglyphics. The Rosetta Stone had three languages, Egyptian, demotic and Greek.

12 Egyptian Writing The Rosetta Stone – 3:45

13 Egyptian Writing Cracking the Code – 5:48 – Re-enacts Champollion as he breaks the code for Egyptian hieroglyphics.

14 The Egyptian People Filled with hope. Secure and confident.
Sense of changelessness. Prosperous and stable. Belief in an afterlife.

15 Grand Stewart or Vizier Upper class Nobles and Priests
Egyptian Social Classes Pharaoh Grand Stewart or Vizier Upper class Nobles and Priests Merchants, Artisans, Scribes, and Tax collectors – strong middle class. In theory, the pharaoh owned the land, but granted portions to his people. Daily life in Egypt – married young, Monogamous unless wife is barren. Wives could inherit, hold property. However, women were primarily in charge of children and the household. Peasant women worked in the fields. Upper class women could serve as priestesses. Parents arranged marriages. Primary concern was family and property. Farmers – most people in Egypt were farmers. They paid taxes, lived in small villages, provided military service and labor for building projects.

16 Check for Understanding
What is the Egyptian style of writing called? What did scribes write on? Of what value was the Rosetta Stone? Who was the most powerful person in Egypt? Which group made up the largest % of the population?

17 Egyptian Religion The Egyptians were polytheistic with over 2,000 gods and goddesses. The most important gods were the sun god, Ra, and land gods. Their gods provided balance between order and chaos. Sun god, Ra

18 Egyptian Religion Osiris was the god of the Underworld and resurrection. It is from the story of his death and resurrection, that Egyptians got their belief in the importance of mummification. This is where you tell the story of Osiris, Isis, and Seth. Mention Anubis, the Jackal headed god…etc. Continue with Horus.

19 Egyptian Religion Isis was an important goddess.
Her bringing together of Osiris’s body and his resurrection were symbolic of the new life brought with the Nile’s yearly flood.

20 Egyptian Religion This is where you tell the story of Osiris, Isis, and Seth. Mention Anubis, the Jackal headed god…etc. Continue with Horus.

21 White crown-Upper Egypt and the Red Crown is for Lower Egypt.
Egypt's Old Kingdom Began in 3100 BC when King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt. He wore the double crown of Egypt. Menes established a dynasty of rulers or pharaohs. White crown-Upper Egypt and the Red Crown is for Lower Egypt.

22 Egypt's Old Kingdom Dynasty – a family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on to their children. Power is usually transferred to the oldest male child.

23 Egypt's Old Kingdom Pharaoh – meant “great house” or “palace.”
They had absolute power. Egyptian pharaoh’s were called the “Son of Ra.” Pharaohs were considered a divine part of a universal cosmos. To obey the pharaoh meant that the cosmos would retain its harmony and balance while to disobey the pharaoh could result in a punitive breakdown of order showing that the gods were displeases. Members of the pharaoh’s family aided him in running the country, however, a bureaucracy had to be established in order to effectively govern the country.

24 Check for Understanding
Were the Egyptians monotheistic or polytheistic? Who was the god of the Underworld? Who was the 1st pharaoh to unite Egypt? A line of rulers from the same family is called this… What does the term pharaoh mean?

25 Egypt's Old Kingdom The pyramids of at Giza, Egypt. The pyramids were erected as tombs for Egyptian pharaohs of the Old Kingdom (ca B.C. A total of about 80 pyramids of various sized survived in Egypt today. The pyramid of Phara Cheops (at Lef. D B.C. ) measuring 755 feet on each side its base and 481 feet in height, was the largest ever built. About 100,000 men, working during the Nile flood seasons, completed it in 20 years. It consists of over 2 million blocks, each having an average weight of more than two tons. The pyramid of Chephren , Cheops’ son is in the middle and that of Menkaure is a the right. The greatest accomplishment of the Old Kingdom was – The building of the Great Pyramids at Giza.

26 The Great Pyramids

27 The Great Pyramids Great Pyramid of Khufu – 4:34

28 The Great Pyramids Originally, mastabas were built to house pharaohs. Later, great pyramids were built. Mastabas were then used to bury the pharaoh’s officials.

29 The Great Pyramids The Great Pyramide of King Cheops or Khufu ( 4th dynast, ca B.C. at) at Giza, Egypt. The length of each side is 746’and height is This pyramid occupying nearly 13 acres, was built of yellow limestone from a nearby quarry, and originally was covered with blocks of polished white limestone, which were removed in later years for use in other construction.

30 The Great Pyramids

31 The Great Pyramids The Great Pyramids were built by King Khufu in Giza – 2,540 BC. Largest and most magnificent of pyramids. Pyramids had supplies for the pharaoh to enjoy when he returned from the dead. Supplies included: food, games, weapons, and boats. Herodotus said that it took 20 years and 100,000 Egyptians to build it. (He wrote about this much later). The size of the pyramid also reflected the status of the pharoah.

32 The Great Sphinx Guarding the Great Pyramids is the Great Sphinx.
240 ft long, 66 ft. high. It has the body of a lion and the head of a man, probably Khufu’s son, Khafre. The Great Sphinx

33 The Great Sphinx The face of the sphinx at Giza. The face is thirteen feet wide; its features are believed to be those of Pharaoh Chephren (Khafre,) who also built the nearby pyramid. Its features were mutilated by artillery fire from Egyptian Mameluke soldiers in the 18th centure

34 Mummification The process of mummifying a body was taken very seriously by priests. First, the major organs were removed, and then the body was drained of all fluids and dried with natron (salt) for about 3 months. There was a belief that a man had two bodies. A physical body and a spiritual body (ka).

35 Mummification Then, the major organs were wrapped and placed in canopic jars. Finally, the body was carefully wrapped one layer at a time and placed in a sarcophagus.

36 Mummification Mr. Mummy – The Mummification Process 7:07

37 The Middle Kingdom 2050 – 1652 BC. Golden Age of stability and trade. Conquered Nubia. Traded with Kush, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Crete.

38 The New Kingdom Egypt was the most powerful nation in the region.
Massive wealth and a new kingdom of powerful pharaohs. Age of militarism and empire.

39 Famous Pharaohs Hatshepsut -1st female pharaoh.
She dressed as a man, and claimed the gods wanted her to be pharaoh. She built many temples.

40 Map to the temples that ran the length of the Nile river.
Pharaohs of this Era Map to the temples that ran the length of the Nile river. Pharaohs expressed their wealth in the building of temples. They were also to build public works such as the canal that connected the Red Sea with the Nile river, and the drainage system that drained swampland providing thousands of acres of farmland.

41 Famous Pharaohs Amenhotep IV or Akhenaton – 1st pharaoh to claim that there was only one god, Aton, the sun. He angered many priests by closing their temples.

42 Famous Pharaohs Akhenaton was married to the world’s most beautiful woman, Queen Nefertiti. Their son was King Tutankhamen, or King Tut, the “boy king.”

43 Famous Pharaohs King Tutankhamen restored the old gods, but his memory was erased from history. His tomb was the most famous because it was complete, and had not been looted.

44 Famous Pharaohs King Tut – 6:17

45 Famous Pharaohs Archaeologist Howard Carter made the most famous of all archaeological finds when he uncovered the tomb of the boy king.

46 Famous Pharaohs The Discovery of Tut’s Tomb by Carter – 3:38

47 Famous Pharaohs Ramses the Great ruled the longest of all the pharaohs. He died at the age of 90. He may have been the pharaoh that dealt with Moses.

48 Famous Pharaohs Cleopatra II was the last of the Egyptian pharaohs. Her challenge to Roman power was answered by defeat at the Battle of Actium and her suicide.

49 Contributions of the Egyptians
Writing – hieroglyphics. Pyramids, temples and monuments. Math – calculate area, volume.

50 Contributions of the Egyptians
365 day calendar. Expertise in anatomy. Great doctors and nurses. Medical training and expertise.

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