Presentation on theme: "Vitamins Essential in small quantities for l growth, l maintenance l and reproduction."— Presentation transcript:
Vitamins Essential in small quantities for l growth, l maintenance l and reproduction.
Vitamins l Have the potential for toxicity when taken at extremely high doses over a long time.
Vitamins l The government has determined recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for various vitamins and minerals.
Vitamin A (beta carotene) l Growth and repair of tissues; l Helps maintain soft skin; l Helps protect mucous membranes of mouth, nose, throat and lungs, thereby reducing susceptibility to infections; protects against air pollutants; l Counteracts weak eyesight; l Aids in bone and teeth formation.
Vitamin A (beta carotene) l Recent medical research shows that foods rich in beta carotene may help reduce the risk of lung cancer and certain oral cancers.
Vitamin A (beta carotene) » RDA » 900 micrograms for men » 700 micrograms for women l Found in carrots and other dark-colored vegetables and fruits. » Upper limit = 3000 micrograms
Vitamin B-1 (thiamine) l Reported to play a key role in the body's metabolic cycle for generating energy; l Aids in the digestion of CHO; l Essential for normal functioning of the nervous system, muscles and heart; l Stabilizes appetite; l Promotes growth and muscle tone. » RDA: 1.5 mg
Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) l Apparently is necessary for CHO, fat and protein metabolism; l Aids in the formation of antibodies and red blood cells; l Maintains cell respiration; l Helps maintain good vision, skin, nails and hair; alleviates eye fatigue. » RDA: 1.7 mg
Niacin (Nicotinic Acid, Vitamin B-3) l Helps improve circulation and reduce the cholesterol level in the blood; l Maintain a healthy nervous system; l Helps to metabolize protein, sugar and fat; reduces high blood pressure; l Increases energy through proper use of food; l Helps maintain healthy skin, tongue and digestive system. » RDA: 20 mg
Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine) l Apparently necessary for the synthesis and breakdown of amino acids, the building blocks of protein; aids in fat and CHO metabolism; l Aids in the formation of antibodies; l Maintains the central nervous system;
Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine) l Helps remove excess fluid of premenstrual women; l Promotes healthy skin; reduces muscle spasms, leg cramps, hand numbness, nausea and stiffness of hands; l Helps maintain a proper balance of sodium and phosphorous in the body. » RDA: 2 mg.
Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamine) l Assists in forming and regenerating red blood cells, thus helping prevent anemia; l Necessary for CHO, fat, and protein metabolism; l Maintains a healthy nervous system; l Promotes growth in children; l Increases energy and helps calcium absorption.
Vitamin B-12 (Cyanocobalamine) l RDA: » 2.4 micrograms, the amount in 3 ounces of beef. » Many people over 50 lose the ability to absorb B12 from natural food sources and so should consider fortified foods like cereals, or a supplement.
Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid) l Participates in the release of energy from CHO, fats, and protein; l Improves the body's resistance to stress; l Helps in cell building and the development of the central nervous system; l Helps adrenal glands; l Fights infections by building antibodies. » RDA: 10 mg.
Biotin l Helps in the use of fats, CHO, protein, folic acid, Pantothenic acid and vitamin B-12; l Promotes healthy hair. » RDA 0.3 mg
Folic acid l Reported to be necessary for DNA and RNA synthesis, which is needed for the growth and reproduction of all body cells; l Essential to the formation of red blood cells by its action on the bone marrow; l Aids in amino acid metabolism.
Folic acid l RDA: 400 micrograms » Found in spinach, orange juice and fortified foods. » In the first days of pregnancy, women are advised to take a supplement to prevent birth defects. » Upper limit = 1 mg, more can cause nerve damage
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) l Essential for healthy teeth, gums and bones; helps heal wounds, scar tissue and fractures; l Prevents scurvy; l Builds resistance to infection; l May aid in the treatment and prevention of the common cold; l Gives strength to blood vessels; l Aids in the absorption of iron.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) l Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of collagen, the intercellular "cement" that holds tissues together. l It is also a major antioxidant nutrient, preventing the conversion of nitrates from tobacco smoke, smog, and some meats into cancer-causing substances.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) l RDA: 75 mg for women and 90 for men » Eight ounces of orange juice yields a day’s supply. » Smokers need 35 mg more. » Upper limit = 2,000 mg » More can cause diarrhea.
Vitamin D l Reported to improve the absorption and use of calcium and phosphorous; l Is required for bone and teeth formation; l And helps maintain a stable nervous system and normal heart action.
Vitamin D l RDA: 200 IU. For most people l 400 IU for people ages 51-70. » Found in fortified milk.
Vitamin E l Protects against cellular aging due to oxidation; l Supplies oxygen to the blood, which is then carried to the heart and other organs, thus alleviating fatigue; l Aids in bringing nourishment to cells;
Vitamin E l Strengthens the capillary walls and prevents red blood cells from destructive poisons; l Prevents and dissolves blood clots. l Has been used by some doctors to help in preventing sterility, muscular dystrophy, calcium deposits in blood walls, and heart conditions.
Vitamin E l RDA: 15 mg » Upper limit = 1,000 mg » Higher levels risk uncontrolled bleeding
Vitamin K l RDA = 120 micrograms for men, 90 for women. » Found in green leafy vegetables.