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Vitamins and Minerals Essential Nutrients Perform hundreds of roles Healthy diet is best way to obtain these nutrients Fine line between getting enough.

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Presentation on theme: "Vitamins and Minerals Essential Nutrients Perform hundreds of roles Healthy diet is best way to obtain these nutrients Fine line between getting enough."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vitamins and Minerals Essential Nutrients Perform hundreds of roles Healthy diet is best way to obtain these nutrients Fine line between getting enough and having too much Micronutrients – Your body only needs tiny amounts

2 Vitamins vs. Minerals Vitamins – Organic, can be broken down by heat, air, or acid Minerals – Inorganic, they retain their chemical structure Why does this matter? Minerals can easily find their way into your body through food, vitamins often are destroyed through cooking

3 Water-Soluble Vitamins Absorbed directly into the bloodstream through digestion or as supplements dissolve Kidneys regulate levels Excess is excreted through urine

4 Names of Water-Soluble Vitamins B-Complex B1 – Thiamine B2 – Riboflavin B3 – Niacin B4 – (None) B5 – Pantothenic Acid B6 – Pyridoxine B7 – Biotin B8 - (None) B9 – Folic Acid B10 – (None) B11 – (None) B12 – Cobalamin Vitamin C – Ascorbic Acid

5 Water-Soluble Vitamins What They Do: Releases energy in food – B Complex Vitamins Produce energy – Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin Build protein and cells – B6, B12, Folate Make collagen – Vitamin C

6 Deficiency of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Beri-Beri – Weight loss, body weakness and pain Inflammation of the nerves and heart failure Sources: Fortified breads and cereals, fish, lean meats and milk

7 Deficiency of Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Pellagra Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia, Death Sources: Red meat and whole grains

8 Deficiency of Vitamin C Scurvy Sources: Citrus fruits, strawberries, potatoes, broccoli

9 Fat-Soluble Vitamins Travel through the body by proteins A, D, E, K Excesses are stored in liver and fat tissues Liver releases excesses as needed

10 Fat-Soluble Vitamins What They Do: Build Bones – Vitamin A, D, K Protect Vision – Vitamin A Promotes Absorption of Calcium – Vitamin D Protect the Body – Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Blood Clotting – Vitamin K ***Stored in your body for long periods of time; an excess amount of these vitamins can be toxic.

11 Deficiency of Vitamin A Blindness

12 Deficiency of Vitamin D Rickets – a weakening and softening of the bones

13 Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Antioxidant- protects body from free radicals Maintains strong immune system Known as the “Love Vitamin” *Deficiencies are Very Rare Too much Vitamin E: Bleeding in the Brain Risk of Birth Defects

14 Vitamin K

15 Minerals Major Calcium Chloride Magnesium Phosphorous Potassium Sodium Sulfur Trace Chromium Copper Fluoride Iodine Iron Manganese Selenium Zinc

16 Major Minerals What They Do: Maintain the proper balance of water in the body – Sodium, Chloride, Potassium Important for healthy bones – Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium Stabilize protein structures (Hair, Skin, Nails) – Sulfur ***Needed in larger amounts and stored in the body

17 Trace Minerals What They Do: Blood formation and function – Iron Strengthens bones/prevents tooth decay – Fluoride Body growth and maturation – Zinc Bone and cartilage development, - Copper Protects against cancer – Selenium Formation of thyroid hormones – Iodine Maintains blood sugar levels – Chromium Heals wounds – Manganese ***Needed in very small amounts

18 Resources six-major-nutrients-4-5-vitamins-and-minerals/ six-major-nutrients-4-5-vitamins-and-minerals/ deficiency-excess-and-vitamin-a-supplements deficiency-excess-and-vitamin-a-supplements


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