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Chapter Six – Part 1 The Water Soluble Vitamins NUT SCI 142 © Spring 2005 Karen Lacey, MS, RD, CD.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Six – Part 1 The Water Soluble Vitamins NUT SCI 142 © Spring 2005 Karen Lacey, MS, RD, CD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Six – Part 1 The Water Soluble Vitamins NUT SCI 142 © Spring 2005 Karen Lacey, MS, RD, CD

2 I. Overview - History 100 years ago first discovered “vitamin” Deficiency diseases – since early times – Scurvy (Vitamin C) – 1700’s – Rickets (Vitamin D) – 1600’s – Pellegra (Niacin) – 1700’s More recent research – Role in preventing chronic diseases – Antioxidants – Controversy

3 A. Key concepts Provide NO energy Facilitate body processes and reactions that are “VITAL” – Promote growth and reproduction – Healthy nerves and skin – Build bones, teeth and blood – Heal wounds – Help release energy from foods Large amounts can be dangerous

4 B. Categories WATER SOLUBLE (9) – Thiamin (B 1 ) – Riboflavin (B 2 ) – Niacin (B 3 ) – Folate (folic acid) – Vitamin B 6 – Vitamin B 12 – Pantothenic Acid – Biotin – Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) FAT SOLUBLE (4) – Vitamin A – Vitamin D – Vitamin E – Vitamin K

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7 1. Thiamin Roles – Coenzymes in releasing energy (especially carbohydrates) – Nerve function DRI – 1.1 to 1.2 mg – Based on calories Severe Deficiency – “beriberi” – Extreme muscle wasting, paralysis and heart failure – Mental confusion Mild Deficiency – Mimics other conditions – Vague, HA, fatigue, fever etc

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9 Thiamin in Foods No one food meets daily needs Wide variety of foods – Pork and ham family – Whole-grain and enriched foods – Nuts and Legumes Losses with boiling Little to none in “junk” foods that are high in carbohydrates

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11 2. Riboflavin Roles – Coenzymes in releasing energy – Helps prepare fats and amino acids for breakdown – Healthy skin and eyes DRI – 1.1 to 1.3 mg Deficiency – Rare – No disease; symptoms – Skin problems around nose and mouth – Eye problems

12 Riboflavin in Foods Milk and milk products (1/2) Meats Whole-grain and enriched foods Leafy green vegetables Destroyed by UV sun and fluorescent light and irradiation

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14 3. Niacin Roles – Coenzymes in releasing energy – Healthy skin, nerves and digestive system Deficiency – “pellegra” – Skin rash – 4 “D’s” Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia and Death DRI – 14 to 16 mg NE NE = niacin equivalent – Tryptophan can be converted to niacin – 60 mg = 1 mg niacin Drug to lower “LDL ” – High doses (500 mg) – Side effects

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16 Niacin in Foods Eggs, meat, poultry and fish Whole-grain and enriched breads and cereals Nuts Legumes

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18 4. Folate (folic acid, folacin) Roles – Coenzyme – DNA synthesis – Red blood cell formation – Protein metabolism – New cell division DRI – 400 ug Deficiency – Neural tubal defect – Anemia – Increase risk of cancers and heart disease

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20 Folate in foods Fresh vegetables Legumes Fruits; especially citrus Seeds Whole-grain, enriched and fortified foods

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24 5. Vitamin B 6 Roles – Protein and fat metabolism – Antibodies and red blood cells – Requirement proportional to protein intake Roles (cont) – Converts tryptophan to niacin – May help prevent heart disease – decrease homocysteine DRI – 1.3 mg

25 Vitamin B 6 (cont) Deficiency – If eat a poor diet when needs are higher (ex. pregnancy) – Alcohol; increase loss – TB drug binds with vitamin – Weakness, impaired immune function – Increase risk of heart disease Toxicity (2000 x DRI) – Unique for B vitamins – Damage to nervous system – Numbness and weakness – Depression, fatigue – HA – Does not treat PMS

26 Vitamin B 6 in Foods Meat, poultry and fish Shellfish Whole-grain breads and cereals Green leafy vegetables Legumes Fruits

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28 6. Vitamin B 12 Roles – Maintains sheaths that surround and protect nerves – Works with folate to make red blood cells DRI – 2.4 ug

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30 Vitamin B 12 Deficiency WHAT Pernicious anemia Large, immature blood cells Paralysis of nerves and muscles; permanent Folic acid corrects anemia but not the nerve and muscle damage WHO Strict Vegans Intrinsic factor Elderly (atrophic gastritis)

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32 Vitamin B 12 Sources Animal Foods – Meat, poultry and fish – Milk and dairy products – Cheese – Eggs Other – Fortified soy beverages – Fortified cereals – Supplements – B 12 injections

33 7. Vitamin C Roles – Production and maintenance of collagen (connective tissue in bones, teeth, skin and tendons) – Wound healing – Release of stress hormones – Antioxidant DRI – mg (increase if smoke)

34 Vitamin C (cont) Deficiency – Scurvy – Small cell anemia – Frequent infections – Bleeding gums and loose teeth – Poor wound healing – Rough skin Toxicity (10 x DRI) – Nausea, diarrhea – Abdominal cramps – Kidney stones – Headache – Fatigue

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39 ANTIOXIDANTS (Vit C, E & beta-carotene) Free radicals (unstable oxygen compounds) – Smoking – Sunlight – Chemical reactions in body – Environmental pollution Cause damage – Enzymes – Cell membrane – DNA – Oxidized LDL- cholesterol Antioxidants – Donate O 2 to make stable

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