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Chapter 4 Social Structure and Social Interaction.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Social Structure and Social Interaction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Social Structure and Social Interaction

2 Levels of Sociological Analysis Macrosociology –Large-Scale Features of Social Life Microsociology –Focus on Social Interaction Yield distinctive perspectives Needed to gain a fuller understanding of social life © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 The Macrosociological Perspective –Status Symbols –Master Statuses –Status Inconsistency –Roles Occupy Status Play Roles –Groups © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 The Macrosociological Perspective Sociological Significance of Social Structure –Guides Our Behavior –Behavior Decided by Location in Social Structure Culture Social Class © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

5 Statuses █ Status: Socially defined positions within a large group or society –Person can hold more than one status at same time Module 16

6 Ascribed and Achieved Status Ascribed status –A social position a person receives at birth or takes involuntarily later in life Matters about which we have little choice Achieved status –A social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort –People’s ascribed statuses influence the statuses they achieve

7 Master Status A status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life –Can be negative as well as positive –Gender is a master status because all societies limit opportunities for women –Physical disability can serve as a master status

8 The Macrosociological Perspective Social Class Divides People by… –Income –Education –Occupational Prestige –Social Status –Ascribed –Achieved © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

9 Status Symbols What are status symbols? –Home –Car –Clothes –Etc.

10 Homes

11 Cars

12 And more…

13 Role Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status –A person holds a status and performs a role –Varies by culture –In every society, actual role performance varies according to a person’s unique personality –Some societies permit more individual expression than others

14 Role Role Set –A number of roles attached to a single status Differs by society Might or might not be important to social identity

15 Social Roles █ Social role: Set of expectations for people who occupy a given status █ Role conflict: When incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by same person █ Role strain: Difficulties that arise when same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations Module 16

16 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Role Strain and Role Conflict

17 –Doubt –Search for alternatives –Action stage –Creation of a new identity Social Roles █ Role exit: Process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s identity to establish a new role Module 16

18 Social Networks █ Social network: Series of social relationships that link a person directly to others, and indirectly links him or her to still more people –Networking: Involvement in social network; valuable skill when job-hunting –Can center on any activity Module 16

19 Social Institutions █ Social institution: Organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs █ Functionalist view 1.Replacing personnel 2.Teaching new recruits 3.Producing and distributing goods and services 4.Preserving order 5.Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose Module 16

20 Social Institutions █ Conflict view –Major institutions help maintain privileges of most powerful individuals and groups within society –Social institutions have inherently conservative natures –Social institutions operate in gendered and racist environments Module 16

21 Social Institutions █ Interactionist view –Social institutions affect everyday behavior –Social behavior conditioned by roles and statuses Module 16

22 Virtual Worlds █ With advances in technology, people can maintain social networks electronically –FaceBook and MySpace first stage in creation of alternative forms of reality –Virtual life can migrate into real life –Online socializations may not necessarily reinforce people’s prejudices –Help preserve real-world networks interrupted by war or other dislocations Module 16

23 Social Institutions Sociological Significance Ten Social Institutions in Industrialized Societies Mass Media as an Emerging Social Institution Comparing Functionalist and Conflict Perspectives © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 Societies—and Their Transformation Hunting and Gathering Societies Pastoral and Horticultural Societies Agricultural Societies Industrial Societies Postindustrial (Information) Societies Biotech Societies: Is a New Type of Society Emerging? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach █ Human societies undergo process of change characterized by dominant pattern known as sociocultural evolution –Society’s level of technology is critical Technology: “Cultural information about the ways in which the material resources of the environment may be used to satisfy human needs and desires” (Nolan and Lenski 2006:361) Module 17

26 Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach █ Preindustrial Societies –Hunting-and-gathering society: (Early humanity) People rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available –Horticultural societies: (About 12,000 years ago) People plant seeds and crops –Agrarian societies: (About 5,000 years ago) People are primarily engaged in production of food Module 17

27 Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach █ Industrial societies: (Beginning 1760) –People depend on mechanization to produce goods and services –People rely on inventions and energy sources –People change function of family as a self-sufficient unit Module 17

28 Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach █ Postindustrial and Postmodern Societies –Postindustrial society: (Beginning 1960) –Economic system engaged primarily in processing and controlling information –Postmodern society: (Beginning late 1970) –Technologically sophisticated society preoccupied with consumer goods and media images Module 17

29 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Social Institutions in Industrial and Postindustrial Societies

30 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 Consequences of Animal Domestication and Plant Cultivation

32 Changes in Social Order What Holds Society Together? –Mechanical and Organic Solidarity –Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft It is continuously evolving as it responds to changing values How Relevant Today? © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

33 Microsociological Perspective: Social Interaction in Everyday Life Stereotypes in Everyday Life Personal Space Eye Contact Smiling Body Language Applied Body Language © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

34 Microsociological Perspective: Social Interaction in Everyday Life Stereotypes in Everyday Life Personal Space –Intimate Distance –Personal Distance –Social Distance –Public Distance © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

35 Dramaturgy: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life Erving Goffman Stages Role Performance, Conflict, and Strain Teamwork Applying Impression Management © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

36 Ethnomethodology: Uncovering Background Assumptions The Study of How People Do Things Harold Garfinkle’s Experiments –Conducted exercises to reveal our background assumptions –Most of these assumptions are unstated © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

37 Social Construction of Reality Definition of the Situation - Thomas Theorem Objective Reality vs. Subjective Interpretation Gynecological Examinations © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

38 Need for Macrosociology and Microsociology Understanding Incomplete Without Both Consider the Example of Groups Studied by William Chambliss Opportunities open or close to people depending on their social class –And how people learn different goals as they grow up in different groups © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.


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