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Basic Approaches to Leadership

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1 Basic Approaches to Leadership

2 What Is Leadership? Leadership Management
The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members Both are necessary for organizational success

3 Trait Theories of Leadership
Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non-leaders Not very useful until matched with the Big Five Personality Framework Traits can predict leadership, but they are better at predicting leader emergence than effectiveness. Leadership Traits Extroversion Conscientiousness Openness Emotional Intelligence (Qualified)

4 Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders Trait theory leadership is inherent, so we must identify the leader based on his or her traits Behavioral theory leadership is a skill set and can be taught to anyone, so we must identify the proper behaviors to teach potential leaders

5 Imp. Leadership Behavioral Studies
Ohio State University - two key dimensions Initiating structure – the defining and structuring of roles Consideration – job relationships that reflect trust and respect University of Michigan- two key dimensions Employee-oriented – emphasizes interpersonal relationships and is the most powerful dimension Production-oriented – emphasizes the technical aspects of the job Both are important The dimensions of the two studies are very similar

6 Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid®
Draws on both studies to assess leadership style “Concern for People” is Consideration and Employee-Orientation “Concern for Production” is Initiating Structure and Production-Orientation Style is determined by position on the graph

7 Contingency Theories Why trait and behavior theories
help us understand leadership missing: the environment in which the leader exists Contingency Theory deals with this additional aspect of leadership effectiveness studies Three key theories: Fielder’s Model Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Path-Goal Theory

8 Fiedler Model Effective group performance depends on the proper match between leadership style and the situation Assumes that leadership style (based on orientation revealed in LPC questionnaire) is fixed Considers Three Situational Factors: Leader-member relations: degree of confidence and trust in the leader Task structure: degree of structure in the jobs Position power: leader’s ability to hire, fire, and reward For effective leadership: must change to a leader who fits the situation or change the situational variables to fit the current leader

9 Graphic Representation of Fiedler’s Model
Used to determine which type of leader to use in a given situation


11 Assessment of Fiedler’s Model
Positives: Considerable evidence supports the model, especially if the original eight situations are grouped into three Problems: The logic behind the LPC scale is not well understood LPC scores are not stable Contingency variables are complex and hard to determine

12 Fiedler’s Cognitive Resource Theory
A refinement of Fiedler’s original model: Focuses on stress as the enemy of rationality and creator of unfavorable conditions A leader’s intelligence and experience influence his or her reaction to that stress Research is supporting the theory. Stress Level Low High Intellectual Abilities Effective Ineffective Leader’s Experience

13 Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership
A model that focuses on follower “readiness” Followers can accept or reject the leader Effectiveness depends on the followers’ response to the leader’s actions “Readiness” is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task A paternal model: As the child matures, the adult releases more and more control over the situation As the workers become more ready, the leader becomes more laissez-faire An intuitive model that does not get much support from the research findings

14 House’s Path-Goal Theory
Four types of leaders: The Theory: Leaders provide followers with information, support, and resources to help them achieve their goals Leaders help clarify the “path” to the worker’s goals Leaders can display multiple leadership types Builds from the Ohio State studies (Initiating structure Consideration) and the expectancy theory of motivation Directive focuses on the work to be done Supportive focuses on the well-being of the worker Participative consults with employees in decision-making Achievement-Oriented sets challenging goals

15 Path-Goal Model Two classes of contingency variables:
Environmental are outside of employee control Subordinate factors are internal to employee Mixed support in the research findings

16 Leader-Member Exchange Theory
LMX LMX Premise: Because of time pressures, leaders form a special relationship with a small group of followers: the “in-group” This in-group is trusted and gets more time and attention from the leader (more “exchanges”) All other followers are in the “out-group” and get less of the leader’s attention and tend to have formal relationships with the leader (fewer “exchanges”) Leaders pick group members early in the relationship A response to the failing of contingency theories to account for followers and heterogeneous leadership approaches to individual workers

17 LMX Model How groups are assigned is unclear
Follower characteristics determine group membership Leaders control by keeping favorites close Research has been generally supportive

18 Global Implications These leadership theories are primarily studied in English-speaking countries GLOBE does have some country-specific insights Brazilian teams prefer leaders who are high in consideration, participative, and have high LPC scores French workers want a leader who is high on initiating structure and task-oriented Egyptian employees value team-oriented, participative leadership, while keeping a high-power distance Chinese workers may favor a moderately participative style Leaders should take culture into account 1. What kind of leadership style is prominent in Bangladesh? Explain with an example 2. What kind of leadership style is preferred by managers in Bangladesh? Explain with an example


20 Chapter Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: Define leadership and contrast leadership and management. Summarize the conclusions of trait theories. Identify the central tenets and main limitations of behavioral theories. Assess contingency theories of leadership by their level of support. Contrast the interactive theories (path-goal and leader-member exchange). Identify the situational variables in the leader-participation model. Show how U.S. managers might need to adjust their leadership approaches in Brazil, France, Egypt, and China.

21 Summary and Managerial Implications
Leadership is central to understanding group behavior as the leader provides the direction Extroversion, conscientiousness, and openness all show consistent relationships to leadership Behavioral approaches have narrowed leadership down into two usable dimensions Need to take into account the situational variables, especially the impact of followers

22 Yroom and Yetton’s Leader-Participation Model
How a leader makes decisions is as important as what is decided Premise: Leader behaviors must adjust to reflect task structure “Normative” model: tells leaders how participative to be in their decision-making of a decision tree Five leadership styles Twelve contingency variables Research testing for both original and modified models has not been encouraging Model is overly complex

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