Objectives To identify the different parts of a feed ration To understand how nutrient aids in animal growth and development
What is a nutrient? A substance that is necessary for an organism to live and grow Nutritional requirements depend on: –Age –Stage of development –Environmental conditions –Activity –Genetic make-up
What is the most important nutrient? Water Function –Temperature regulation –Chemical reactions –Transport –Gives body form
Water Consumption in ONE day SpeciesGallons Dairy Cattle28-50 Beef6-20 Horse5-15 Pig5-8 Sheep1-3 100 Turkeys15 100 Chickens9
Carbohydrates Compound composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Examples include starches and sugars. –Energy from the breaking of bonds They form about 75% of all dry matter in plants. They are the CHIEF SOURCE OF ENERGY in animal feed.
Types of Carbohydrates Starches –Grain, root crops, other plant materials Sugars –Simple sugars (monosaccharides) –Double sugars (disaccharides) –Milk and fruit Fiber –Plant cell walls and cellulose –Fermented by bacteria in foregut of ruminant and hind gut fermentors (require in their diet)
Lipids (Fats) Aids in the absorption of vitamin A (and other fat soluble vitamins) from food and especially of carotene. Helps in the absorption of calcium. Increases the palatability of a ration. Increases the production energy of the ration. Is found as a component in every cell in the body. 2.25 times more energy than carbohydrates
More energy in fats so why not feed more fat than carbohydrates? Not enough protein uptake –Young animals will not reach maximum growth Destroy certain fat soluble vitamins. Produce soft lard in hogs.
Protein Protein needed for –Cell construction –Muscle formation and maintenance –Fetal Growth –Extra protein is broken down for body energy Made Up of Amino Acids Protein is EXPENSIVE
Amino Acids Amino acid requirements of animals depends on: –The kind of animal. –Body functions of the animal: age work lactation fetal growth
Protein When feeding protein The amount of protein. The quality of protein. The compliment of amino acids in proteins www.asasoya.org/Images/collage4.jpg
Ruminants vs Non-Runinants Protein Ruminants can make essential amino acids Done by rumen bacteria from simple forms of nitrogen Urea Only used for Ruminants Protein substitute –Source of nitrogen of rumen organisms to produce bacteria Used only in small amounts http://agnews.tamu.edu/dailynews/stories/ANSC/photos/Mar0206a-lr.jpg
Protein Location of Protein in feed material The "germ" is the part of the grain kernel which usually contains available protein. www.angelfire.com/folk/molinologist/whkernel.gif
Vitamins Vitamins job in the body: – regulate body functions – keep body healthy – develop resistance to disease Do not provide body with energy
Vitamins Fat Soluble- stored in fat –A,D,E,K Vitamin K is produced in animal’s intestinal tract Vitamin D is produced from the sun Water Soluble- dissolved by water –Need to be consumed everyday –B,C
Minerals Macrominerals –Need in large amounts –Calcium- causes bones and teeth to form properly –Phosphorus- key ingredient in the body’s use of protein –Iron- makes hemoglobin in red blood cells –Iodine- –Magnesium- lack causes muscle tremors and shakes –Sodium and potassium- water balance, transfer nutrients and waste through the cell membrane Microminerals –Need in small amounts