REASONS WHY ANIMALS NEED FEED MAINTENANCE GROWTH REPRODUCTION LACTATION WORKING OTHER PRODUCTS AND USES
WAYS ANIMALS USE NUTRIENTS TO MAINTAIN THEMSELVES Used to keep the body warm Replace old cells Run the internal organs For body movement
SIX TYPES OF MATERIALS THAT PROVIDE NUTRIENTS CARBOHYDRATES: Major sources are corn, oats, hay, soybean oil meal and grain sorghum. FATS: Meat scraps, tankage, cottonseed and fish meal are examples. PROTEIN: Tankage, soybean meal, legume hay, blood meal, feather meal, fish meal and skim milk.
TYPES OF MATERIALS (CONT.) MINERALS: Eighteen minerals are needed by animals;six are macrominerals. Includes calcium, salt, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and sulfur. VITAMINS: Vitamins A,D, and the B vitamins are most important in animals. WATER: Most important of all nutrients. A market hog is 40% water; newborn calf is 70% water.
TWO GENERAL CLASSES OF FEEDSTUFFS ROUGHAGES: Feedstuffs that are high in fiber and low in energy. Examples include hay, green pasture grasses and legumes and silage. CONCENTRATES: Feed that are low in fiber and high in energy. Examples are corn, oats, wheat, meat scraps, blood meal, soybean meal and urea.
DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENT A digestible nutrient is the part of a feedstuff that can be digested, or broken down. Fiber in roughage is not easily digested. Ruminants and horses are efficient users of roughage.
TERMS RATION: The total amount of feed an animal gets in a 24 hour period. BALANCED RATION: A ration that provides all of the nutrients needed by the animal in the right amount and proportion. DIET: Type and amount of feed and water an animal eats.
THREE TYPES OF ROUGHAGE FOR ANIMALS PASTURE- Land where grasses and other plants grow for animals to graze. HAY- Made of the leaves and stems of plants that have been cut and dried for feed. SILAGE- Made from cut green plants by chopping them into small pieces and placing the “chop” in a silo.
EXAMPLES OF GRAIN CONCENTRATES Grains are high in TDN but do not provide a balanced ration. Examples include corn, oats, wheat and grain sorghum. Corn is the most widely used grain.
SOURCES OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS Protein supplements are high in TDN and high in protein. Three types: Animal - meat scraps and tankage, blood meal, fish meal, and skim milk. Plant- soybean oil meal, cotton seed meal and various grain by-products. Synthetic- Urea, molasses, rice hulls, and citrus pulp treated with ammonia.
FEED ADDITIVES Placed in feed while it is being manufactured to preserve it and enhance growth of the animals. Medications Wormers Marketing enhancement Antioxidants
IMPLANTS AND INJECTIONS Implants involve placing solid materials under the skin. Injections involve using hypodermic needles and syringes to get a substance into the body system of an animal. Examples are BST to increase milk production in dairy cows and fish may be injected to encourage spawning.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN SELECTING FEED FOR ANIMALS NUTRIENT CONTENT PALATABILITY FREE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS VARIETY BULKINESS COST FEED STORAGE
THREE FORMS IN WHICH ROUGHAGE IS FED BALES LOOSE CHOP PELLETS AND WAFERS
WAYS CONCENTRATES ARE MADE INTO FORMS OF FEED CRACKING AND ROLLING GRINDING EXTRUDING
WAYS SUPPLEMENTS ARE PREPARED BLOCKS- Salt or mineral block LIQUIDS- Molasses MIXES- Salt, protein sources and other materials