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Feed Nutrients Objectives:

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Presentation on theme: "Feed Nutrients Objectives:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Feed Nutrients Objectives:
Identify major functions of basic nutrient groups and feeds that are sources for each.

2 Nutrients A chemical element or compound that aids in the support of life. Necessary for cells to live, grow, and function properly. Many needed and must be in the proper balance Lack of one or more nutrients will slow growth

3 5 Groups of Nutrients Energy Nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and oils)
Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water

4 Energy Nutrients - Carbohydrates
Main energy function Made up of sugars, starches, cellulose, and lignin Chemically composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Energy powers muscular movement Produce body heat Extra Carbs are stored as fat

5 Simple and Complex Carbohydrates
Sugars and Starches Referred as nitrogen free extract (nfe) Come from cereal grains (corn, etc) Complex Cellulose and lignin Called Fiber More difficult to digest Found mostly in roughages (hay, grass)

6 Fiber Content of Feeds Simple stomached animals can not digest large amounts of fiber, and their ration must be made up of mostly cereal grains. Ruminant animals can eat large amounts of fiber, and a high percentage of their ration is roughage

7 Energy Nutrients - Fats and Oils
Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but contain more carbon and hydrogen atoms than carbohydrates For this reason fats have 2.25 times as much energy value than carbohydrates Fats are solid at body temperature Oils are liquid at body temperature

8 Fats and Oils They are easily digested in the animal
Provide energy and body heat Carry fat-soluble vitamins Come from both vegetable and animal sources Vegetable fat ranges from 1.8 to 4.4 % Animal fat ranges from 1 to 10.6 %

9 Crude Protein Total Protein Not all is digested
60% in ruminant rations is digested 75% in non-ruminant rations is digested Digestible Protein- amount of true protein in the feed

10 Proteins Organic compounds made up of amino acids
Contain: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Some may contain sulphur, phosphorus, and iron Supply materials to build body tissue (ligaments, hair, hooves, skin, organs, and muscle are partially formed by protein)

11 Nutrients If an animal takes in more protein than needed, nitrogen is separated and given off as urine The material left is then is then converted into energy or body fat Essential amino acids - needed by the animal and the animal can’t produce the amino acid Non - Essential amino acids - needed by the animal but are synthesized from other amino acids.

12 Non-Essential Amino Acids
Needed by animals but synthesized in the body from another amino acids there for do not need to be provided in the ration

13 Amino Acids in Ruminant and Non- Ruminant Animals
Non-ruminant animals can not synthesize the essential amino acids fast enough to meet the animals needs therefore those essential amino acids must be provided in the ration Ruminant animals generally synthesize the essential amino acids by the rumen at a rate to meet the needs of the animal

14 Sources of Protein Animal source protein are considered good-quality proteins since they contain a good balance of essential amino acids Plant proteins are thought to be poor-quality proteins because they lack some amino acids

15 Proteins in Ruminants Can be met by feeding proteins of vegetable sources Also by feeding urea (synthetic nitrogen source made from air, water and carbon) Urea is mixed with the ration to to provide nitrogen for making amino acids in the ruminants body

16 Proteins in Simple Stomached Animals
Need to feed balanced ration with the right balance of essential amino acids If grains are combined in the correct combination they will provide a balanced ration. Soybean meal is most commonly used

17 Protein Sources Plant Linseed meal Dehulled soybean meal
Cottonseed meal Dehydrated alfalfa meal Animal Meat meal Fish meal Dried whey Casein Dried Milk

18 Vitamins Trace organic compounds or needed in small amounts
All vitamins contain carbon Two types of vitamins: Fat soluble and Water soluble

19 Fat Soluble Vitamins Dissolved in fat Vitamins A, D, E, and K
Vitamin A - associated with healthy eyes, good conception rate, and disease resistance Vitamin D - assoc. with good bone development and mineral balance of the blood

20 Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin E - associated with normal reproduction and muscle development Can also help immune system Vitamin K - Helps with blood clotting and prevents excessive bleeding from injuries

21 Sources of Fat Soluble Vitamins
Green leafy hay Yellow Corn Cod Liver Fish Oils Wheat Oil Vitamin D is produced in the body when sunlight is present

22 Water Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin C - Helps teeth and bone formation and prevents infections Vitamin B complex - needed for chemical reactions in the body and help improve appetite, growth and reproduction

23 Sources of Water Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin C is found in green pastures and also farm animals can produce enough vitamin C in their body Vitamin B complex sources- green pastures, cereal grains, hay, milk, fish solubles, and animal proteins

24 Minerals Needed in small amounts
Contain NO Carbon (if the feed was burned the ash left would be minerals) Provide material for growth of bones, teeth, tissue, regulate chemical processes, aid in muscular activities, and release energy for body heat Two types - Major and Trace Minerals

25 Major Minerals Needed in large amounts Salt, calcium, and phosphorus

26 Trace Minerals Needed in small amounts
Potassium, sulfur, magnesium, iron, iodine, copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese, boron, molybdenum, fluorine, and selenium Most trace minerals are in the feed

27 Water Makes up the most of the living organism (40%-80%)
Helps dissolve nutrients, controls body temperature of the animals body. Water in the blood acts as a carrier of nutrients and is necessary for chemical reactions Animals can live longer without food than water

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