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Balancing Rations Animal Science II Unit 8.

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Presentation on theme: "Balancing Rations Animal Science II Unit 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Balancing Rations Animal Science II Unit 8

2 Objectives Classify feeds as roughages and concentrates
Describe the six functions of a good ration Explain the characteristics of a good ration Balance livestock rations using commonly accepted practices

3 Classification of Feeds

4 Roughages Contain more than 18% crude fiber when dry
Includes: hay, silage, pasture, fodder 2 general class: legume roughage and non-legume roughage

5 Legume Roughages Can take nitrogen from the air
Able to due so because they have nodules on their roots that contain bacteria These bacteria fix the nitrogen from the air in soil and make it available for the plant to use Do so by combining the free nitrogen with other elements to form nitrogen compounds All the clovers, alfalfa, soybeans, trefoil, lespedeza, peas and beans Usually higher in protein than nonlegume roughages

6 Nonlegume Roughages Cannot use nitrogen from the air Lower in protein
Many common livestock feeds are nonlegume Corn silage, sorghum silage, fodders, bluegrass, timothy, redtop, bromegrass, orchardgrass, fescue, costal Bermuda grass, common Bermuda grass, prairie grass (Western wheatgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, etc)

7 Concentrates Less than 18% crude fiber when dry Two classes
Protein supplements Energy feeds

8 Protein Supplements 20% or more protein
Divided into 2 groups based on their source

9 Protein Supplements Animal proteins
Come from animals or animal by-products Common: tankage, meat scraps, meat and bonemeal, fish meal, dried milk (whole & skimmed), blood meal, feather meal Most contain more than 47% crude protein More balanced essential amino acids Variable quality compared to vegetable proteins Vegetable Proteins Come from plants Common: soybean oil meal, cottonseed meal, linseed oil meal, peanut oil meal, corn gluten feed, brewers dried grains, distillers dried grains Most contain less than 47% crude protein Soybean oil meal is used most Can supply necessary amino acids for swine and poultry Only protein source that can be used for ruminants

10 Commercial Protein Supplements
Made by commercial feed companies Mixes of animal and plant protein feeds Usually made for 1 class of animal Often mix of minerals, vitamins, antibiotics Feed tag needs to be read and feeding directions followed

11 Energy Feeds Feeds with less than 20% crude protein Most grains
Oats, corn, sorghum, barley, rye, wheat, ground ear corn, wheat bran, wheat middling's, dried citrus pulp, dried beet pulp, dried whey Corn is the most widely used Followed by sorghum grain, oats, barley

12 Ration Characteristics

13 Ration Characteristics
Animals need proper nutrition to efficiently produce meat, milk, eggs, wool, work, etc A ration is the amount of feed given to an animal to meet its needs during a twenty-four hour period A balanced ration is one that has all the nutrients the animal needs in the right proportions and amounts Diet refers to the ration without reference to a specific time period

14 Palatability Ration must taste good
Mold, insect and weather damage all lower palatability

15 Feed & Economics Feed accounts for approximately 75% of the total cost of raising livestock Therefore it is necessary to develop rations that are as economical as possible

16 Poisonous Plants Should not be included in the diet
Sometimes grow in hay fields or pastures See Table 8-1 p.165

17 Balancing for Species and Age
Ruminants use more roughage than nonruminants Younger animals cannot use as much roughage either Also need to consider the purpose for which the animal is being fed For example fattening animals generally should be fed less roughage than breeding animals

18 Micronutrients and Feed Additives
Used in small quantities Care needs to be taken to thoroughly mix these for uniform distribution Excessive amounts of micronutrients can be harmful

19 Functions of the Ration

20 Functions of Rations Must be considered when determining nutrient requirements Functions include Maintenance Growth Fattening Production Work

21 Maintenance Primary use of nutrients is to maintain life
Animals must have energy for the functioning of the heart, breathing and other vital body processes or the basal metabolism Energy is also needed to maintain body temperature The ration must also provide protein, vitamins and minerals, fatty acids to replace those that are naturally lost About ½ of the ration fed is needed for maintenance An animal on full feed will use about 1/3 of the ration for maintenance

22 Growth Nutrients can only be used for growth after maintenance requirements are met Animals mature by growing Larger species mature slower Growth rate of large animals is faster than that of smaller animals

23 Fattening Nutrients that are not used for maintenance or growth may be used for fattening Fat is stored into the tissues of the body Fat within the muscle is called marbling Marbling makes meat juicy and good tasting The object of fattening is to obtain the right amount of fat in the muscle without getting too much fat Feeds that are high in carbohydrates and fats are used for fattening

24 Production Cows, swine, horse, sheep, goats all produce milk to feed their young Dairy goats and cows produce milk for human use as well Chickens produce eggs Sheep and goats produce mohair All this production requires nutrients. The nutrients depend on the kind of production

25 Reproduction Requires proper nutrition Animals may become sterile
Extremely important for pregnant animals Most of the fetus’s growth takes place during the last third of the pregnancy Additional amounts of nutrients are needed during pregnancy

26 Work Horses-riding, driving
Energy needed for work comes from carbohydrates, fats, extra protein Other needs of the body are met before nutrients are available for work Animal will use fat stored in the body for work if the ration does not supply enough Extra salt is also needed due to animals sweating

27 Balancing Rations

28 General Principals Must meet the nutritional needs
Nutrient allowance should be met as close as possible Not more than 3% below the requirement

29 Dry Matter Must have a certain amount in the ration
If not the animal will be hungry The digestive system will not function properly Also an upper limit that varies with the animal being fed and its size Total dry matter in the ration of a full fed animal should not be more than 3% above its need

30 Protein Measured by the total protein (TP) need of the animal
Digestible protein may also be used to balance the ration Essential amino acids must be included when balancing a ration for nonruminants Acceptable to allow 5-10% more protein in the ration than the animal needs

31 Energy Four methods of measurement
Digestible Energy (DE) Total Digestible Energy (TDE) Metabolizable Energy (ME) Net Energy (NE) Gross energy of feed is measured in a lab using a bomb calorimeter The feed is burned completely and the total amount of heat released from the burning is the gross energy

32 Digestible Energy The gross energy of the feed minus the energy remaining in the feces of the animal after the feed is digested

33 Metabolizable Energy For Ruminants For Non Ruminants
The gross energy in the feed minus the energy found in the feces, gaseous products of digestion and urine For Non Ruminants The gross energy in the feed minus the energy found in the feces and urine

34 Net Energy Metabolizable energy minus the heat increment
Energy used for Maintenance only NEm Amount of energy used to keep the animal’s energy in equilibrium-there is no net gain or loss of energy in the animal’s body tissues Maintenance plus production NEm+p Production only NEp Amount of energy need above the amount used for maintenance that is used for work, tissue growth, fat production, fetus growth, or milk, egg, or wool production and so on

35 Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN)
Total of the digestible protein, digestible nitrogen-free extract, digestible crude fiber and 2.25 X’s the digestible fat Gives a measure of the total energy value of the feed when it is fed Varies with the class of animal to which it is fed Should not be more than about 5% more than what the animal needs

36 Balancing Calcium and Phosphorus
Important in balancing rations Should be between a 1:1 and 2:1 ratio The ratio is more important than the total amount being fed Total Ca and P are often more than needed when other requirements are met Other mineral needs are usually not considered and can be met with trace-mineralized salt

37 Vitamins Vitamin A is taken into account when balancing the ration
Other vitamin needs are added with out calculating the vitamin content of the feed Vitamin A will often be more than needed but is not harmful Vitamin deficiencies can occur in cattle and sheep during pregnancy if low quality legume hay is fed Vitamin supplements should always be added to pregnancy rations

38 Getting the Most Bang for Your Buck
Some feeds are cheaper sources of nutrients than others Energy feeds should be compared based on the price per pound of energy (TDN, DE, ME or NE) Protein feeds should be compared in terms of price per pound of total protein or digestible protein The least expensive source of nutrients should be used as much as possible

39 Relationship Between 100% Dry Matter Basis and As-Fed Basis
All feed contains some moisture and the amount varies with the feed, form of feed, stage of growth at harvest, length of time in storage, storage conditions The appendix in the back of the book shows the average percent dry matter in the feeds listed

40 100% Dry Matter Basis Data presented is calculated on the basis that all moisture has been removed

41 As-Fed Basis Data is calculated on the basis of the average amount of moisture found in the feed as it is used on the farm

42 Rules of Thumb for Balancing Rations

43 Beef See p in text

44 Swine See p. 173 in text

45 Sheep See p. 173 in text

46 Goats See p. 173 in text

47 Horses See p & Table 8-2

48 Poultry See p. 174 in text

49 Steps in Balancing a Ration

50 Step 1 Identify the kind, age, weight and function of the animal(s) for which the ration is being formulated. In our text suggested rations and feeding programs are found in the units on the specific species; these may be used for formulating rations.

51 Step 2 Consult the table of nutrients to determine the nutrient need(s) of the animal(s) These requirements are called FEEDING STANDARDS Based on average requirements May not meet the needs under specific conditions Adjustments may be needed if unusual conditions exsists

52 Step 3 Choose the feeds to be used
Consult the feed composition table to determine the nutrient content of the selected feed Nutrient contents differ with species

53 Step 4 Calculate the amount of each feed to be used in the ration
Sevral methods are available to do this but we will use the Pearson Square Method

54 Step 5 Check the ration formulated against the needs of the animal(s)
If there is/are excessive amount(s) of a nutrient(s) present it may be necessary to reformulate the ration

55 Determining Ration Costs
Check the ration cost to see if it is the most economical Calculate cost per pound or per ton Daily cost of feeding may also be calculated if a daily consumption rate is know

56 Pearson Square 45

57 The Pearson Square Cannot balance rations by trial and error
Pearson Square simplifies balancing rations Can only use two feeds

58 Using the Pearson Square
EXAMPLE 2,000 pounds of feed is needed to feed a 100-pound growing hog. A feeding standards table shows that a 14% crude protein ration is needed. Corn and Soybean oil meal (SBOM) are selected as feeds. A feed composition table shows that corn has 8.9% and SBOM has 45.8% crude protein on an as-fed basis. How much corn and soybean oil meal need to be mixed together for 2,000 pounds of feed?

59 STEP 1 Draw a square with lines connecting the opposite corners.
Write the percent of crude protein (14) in the center of the square. 14

60 STEP 2 Write the feeds to be used and their crude protein percents at the left hand corners of the square. Corn 8.9 14 Soybean oil meal 45.8

61 STEP 3 Subtract the smaller number from the larger, along the diagonal lines. Write the differences at the opposite end of the diagonals. 31.8= Corn 8.9 14 Soybean oil meal 45.8 5.1=14-8.9

62 STEP 3 The difference between the percent protein in the soybean oil meal and the percent protein in the ration are the parts of corn needed. The difference between the percent protein in the corn and the percent protein in the ration are the parts of soybean oil meal neeeded. The sum of the numbers on the right equals the difference in the numbers on the left. This fact is used as a check to see if the square is set up correctly.

63 STEP 3 14 36.9 36.9 Parts Corn 31.8 Corn 8.9 Soybean oil meal 45.8
5.1 Parts SBOM 36.9 36.9

64 STEP 4 Divide the parts of each feed by the total parts to find the percent of each feed in the ration Corn 31.8/36.9x100=86.2% Soybean oil meal 5.1/36.9x100=13.8%

65 STEP 5 It is known that 2,000 pounds of the mixture is needed. To find the pounds of each feed in the mix, the percent of each feed is multiplied by the total pounds of the mix Corn 2,000 x 0.862= 1,724 pounds SBOM 2,000 x 0.138= 276 pounds *Numbers have been rounded to full pounds.

66 STEP 6 Check the mix to ensure that the protein need is met. Multiply the pounds of the feed in the it’s precent protein . Corn 1,724 x 0.089= 153 lbs of Corn SBOM 276 x 0.458= 126 lbs of SBOM Add the pounds of protein together = 279 Divide by the total weight of the mix 279/2,000 x 100= 14% The mix is balanced for crude protein content!

67 Using the Pearson Square to Mix Two Grains with a Supplement (START)
Can be used to find out how much of two grains should be mixed with a supplement Proportions of grain must be known first

68 EXAMPLE 2,000 pound mix of corn, oats and soybean oil meal is needed. The mix is to contain 16% Digestible Protein. A decision is made to use ¾ corn and ¼ oats in the mix. Thus, the proportion of corn to oats is 3:1. How many pounds of corn, oats and soybean oil meal are needed?

69 STEP 1 Need to find the weighted average percent of protein in the corn and oats first. To do this Multiply the proportion of corn (3) by the percent digestible protein in corn (7.1). Do the same for oats. Then add the two answers together and divide by the total parts (4). This answer is the weighted average percentage of digestible protein in the corn oats mix.

70 STEP 1 cont… 3 x 7.1=21.3 (Corn) 1 x 9.9= 9.9 (Oats) 31.2
31.2/4= 7.8% Digestible Protein in the corn-oats mix

71 Using the Pearson Square X
Used in the same method as before to mix two feeds. On a sheet of paper, work out this problem 3 parts Corn, 1 part oats 7.8 16 Soybean oil meal 41.7

72 Using the Pearson Square
Same method can be used for mixing two protein supplements and 1 grain Can also be used to mix 2 grains and 2 protein supplements Just remember that the proportions of like feed must be decided upon before hand and the weighted average percent of protein found Any measure of nutrients in the feed may be used Energy- TDN, NE, ME, DE Protein- CP, DP

73 Balancing A Swine Ration
See p in Text

74 Balancing a Ration for Beef
See p in Text

75 Using Algebraic Equation to Balance Ration
May be used instead of Pearson Square Basic equations are X= pounds of grain needed Y= pounds of supplement Equation #1 X+Y= Total Pounds of Mix Needed Equation # 2 (% Nutrient in grain) x (X) + (% Nutrient in Supplement) x (Y)= pounds of nutrient desired in mix

76 EXAMPLE Same problem as the 1st Pearson Square Example
Mix of 2,000 lbs is to be balanced for protein using two feeds.

77 EXAMPLE cont… Place the desired values in equation 2 0.089X+0.458Y=280
REMEMBER TO EXPRESS % AS DECIMALS 0.089X+0.458Y=280 280 is found by multiplying the quantity of feed (2,000 lbs) by the percent (14) [or the amount] of nutrient desired: 2,000x0.14)

78 EXAMPLE cont… Either X or Y must be canceled by the multiplication of equation 1 by the percentage of nutrients for either X or Y, and the resulting equation 3 is subtracted from equation 2. This example uses the percentage crude protein for corn (0.089), giving equation 3 0.089X+0.089Y=178 (178 is found by multiplying times 2,000 lbs)

79 EXAMPLE cont… SUBTRACT equation 3 from equation 2
0.089X+0.458Y=280 -0.089X-0.089Y= -178 0.369Y=102 Y= 276 lbs soybean meal X may then be found by substituting the value of Y in equation 1 and solving X+276=2,000 X=2, X= 1,724 lbs of corn

80 Algebraic Equations Get the same result as Pearson square
May be used to balance rations using 3 or more feeds Same initial step must be taken as when using the Pearson Square—group similar feeds into two groups and determine the proportions of each to be used in each group After this is done the same procedure as above is followed.

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