2 Objectives Classify feeds as roughages and concentrates Describe the six functions of a good rationExplain the characteristics of a good rationBalance livestock rations using commonly accepted practices
4 Roughages Contain more than 18% crude fiber when dry Includes: hay, silage, pasture, fodder2 general class: legume roughage and non-legume roughage
5 Legume Roughages Can take nitrogen from the air Able to due so because they have nodules on their roots that contain bacteriaThese bacteria fix the nitrogen from the air in soil and make it available for the plant to useDo so by combining the free nitrogen with other elements to form nitrogen compoundsAll the clovers, alfalfa, soybeans, trefoil, lespedeza, peas and beansUsually higher in protein than nonlegume roughages
6 Nonlegume Roughages Cannot use nitrogen from the air Lower in protein Many common livestock feeds are nonlegumeCorn silage, sorghum silage, fodders, bluegrass, timothy, redtop, bromegrass, orchardgrass, fescue, costal Bermuda grass, common Bermuda grass, prairie grass (Western wheatgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, etc)
7 Concentrates Less than 18% crude fiber when dry Two classes Protein supplementsEnergy feeds
8 Protein Supplements 20% or more protein Divided into 2 groups based on their source
9 Protein Supplements Animal proteins Come from animals or animal by-productsCommon: tankage, meat scraps, meat and bonemeal, fish meal, dried milk (whole & skimmed), blood meal, feather mealMost contain more than 47% crude proteinMore balanced essential amino acidsVariable quality compared to vegetable proteinsVegetable ProteinsCome from plantsCommon: soybean oil meal, cottonseed meal, linseed oil meal, peanut oil meal, corn gluten feed, brewers dried grains, distillers dried grainsMost contain less than 47% crude proteinSoybean oil meal is used mostCan supply necessary amino acids for swine and poultryOnly protein source that can be used for ruminants
10 Commercial Protein Supplements Made by commercial feed companiesMixes of animal and plant protein feedsUsually made for 1 class of animalOften mix of minerals, vitamins, antibioticsFeed tag needs to be read and feeding directions followed
11 Energy Feeds Feeds with less than 20% crude protein Most grains Oats, corn, sorghum, barley, rye, wheat, ground ear corn, wheat bran, wheat middling's, dried citrus pulp, dried beet pulp, dried wheyCorn is the most widely usedFollowed by sorghum grain, oats, barley
13 Ration Characteristics Animals need proper nutrition to efficiently produce meat, milk, eggs, wool, work, etcA ration is the amount of feed given to an animal to meet its needs during a twenty-four hour periodA balanced ration is one that has all the nutrients the animal needs in the right proportions and amountsDiet refers to the ration without reference to a specific time period
14 Palatability Ration must taste good Mold, insect and weather damage all lower palatability
15 Feed & EconomicsFeed accounts for approximately 75% of the total cost of raising livestockTherefore it is necessary to develop rations that are as economical as possible
16 Poisonous Plants Should not be included in the diet Sometimes grow in hay fields or pasturesSee Table 8-1 p.165
17 Balancing for Species and Age Ruminants use more roughage than nonruminantsYounger animals cannot use as much roughage eitherAlso need to consider the purpose for which the animal is being fedFor example fattening animals generally should be fed less roughage than breeding animals
18 Micronutrients and Feed Additives Used in small quantitiesCare needs to be taken to thoroughly mix these for uniform distributionExcessive amounts of micronutrients can be harmful
20 Functions of RationsMust be considered when determining nutrient requirementsFunctions includeMaintenanceGrowthFatteningProductionWork
21 Maintenance Primary use of nutrients is to maintain life Animals must have energy for the functioning of the heart, breathing and other vital body processes or the basal metabolismEnergy is also needed to maintain body temperatureThe ration must also provide protein, vitamins and minerals, fatty acids to replace those that are naturally lostAbout ½ of the ration fed is needed for maintenanceAn animal on full feed will use about 1/3 of the ration for maintenance
22 GrowthNutrients can only be used for growth after maintenance requirements are metAnimals mature by growingLarger species mature slowerGrowth rate of large animals is faster than that of smaller animals
23 FatteningNutrients that are not used for maintenance or growth may be used for fatteningFat is stored into the tissues of the bodyFat within the muscle is called marblingMarbling makes meat juicy and good tastingThe object of fattening is to obtain the right amount of fat in the muscle without getting too much fatFeeds that are high in carbohydrates and fats are used for fattening
24 ProductionCows, swine, horse, sheep, goats all produce milk to feed their youngDairy goats and cows produce milk for human use as wellChickens produce eggsSheep and goats produce mohairAll this production requires nutrients. The nutrients depend on the kind of production
25 Reproduction Requires proper nutrition Animals may become sterile Extremely important for pregnant animalsMost of the fetus’s growth takes place during the last third of the pregnancyAdditional amounts of nutrients are needed during pregnancy
26 Work Horses-riding, driving Energy needed for work comes from carbohydrates, fats, extra proteinOther needs of the body are met before nutrients are available for workAnimal will use fat stored in the body for work if the ration does not supply enoughExtra salt is also needed due to animals sweating
28 General Principals Must meet the nutritional needs Nutrient allowance should be met as close as possibleNot more than 3% below the requirement
29 Dry Matter Must have a certain amount in the ration If not the animal will be hungryThe digestive system will not function properlyAlso an upper limit that varies with the animal being fed and its sizeTotal dry matter in the ration of a full fed animal should not be more than 3% above its need
30 Protein Measured by the total protein (TP) need of the animal Digestible protein may also be used to balance the rationEssential amino acids must be included when balancing a ration for nonruminantsAcceptable to allow 5-10% more protein in the ration than the animal needs
31 Energy Four methods of measurement Digestible Energy (DE)Total Digestible Energy (TDE)Metabolizable Energy (ME)Net Energy (NE)Gross energy of feed is measured in a lab using a bomb calorimeterThe feed is burned completely and the total amount of heat released from the burning is the gross energy
32 Digestible EnergyThe gross energy of the feed minus the energy remaining in the feces of the animal after the feed is digested
33 Metabolizable Energy For Ruminants For Non Ruminants The gross energy in the feed minus the energy found in the feces, gaseous products of digestion and urineFor Non RuminantsThe gross energy in the feed minus the energy found in the feces and urine
34 Net Energy Metabolizable energy minus the heat increment Energy used forMaintenance only NEmAmount of energy used to keep the animal’s energy in equilibrium-there is no net gain or loss of energy in the animal’s body tissuesMaintenance plus production NEm+pProduction only NEpAmount of energy need above the amount used for maintenance that is used for work, tissue growth, fat production, fetus growth, or milk, egg, or wool production and so on
35 Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) Total of the digestible protein, digestible nitrogen-free extract, digestible crude fiber and 2.25 X’s the digestible fatGives a measure of the total energy value of the feed when it is fedVaries with the class of animal to which it is fedShould not be more than about 5% more than what the animal needs
36 Balancing Calcium and Phosphorus Important in balancing rationsShould be between a 1:1 and 2:1 ratioThe ratio is more important than the total amount being fedTotal Ca and P are often more than needed when other requirements are metOther mineral needs are usually not considered and can be met with trace-mineralized salt
37 Vitamins Vitamin A is taken into account when balancing the ration Other vitamin needs are added with out calculating the vitamin content of the feedVitamin A will often be more than needed but is not harmfulVitamin deficiencies can occur in cattle and sheep during pregnancy if low quality legume hay is fedVitamin supplements should always be added to pregnancy rations
38 Getting the Most Bang for Your Buck Some feeds are cheaper sources of nutrients than othersEnergy feeds should be compared based on the price per pound of energy (TDN, DE, ME or NE)Protein feeds should be compared in terms of price per pound of total protein or digestible proteinThe least expensive source of nutrients should be used as much as possible
39 Relationship Between 100% Dry Matter Basis and As-Fed Basis All feed contains some moisture and the amount varies with the feed, form of feed, stage of growth at harvest, length of time in storage, storage conditionsThe appendix in the back of the book shows the average percent dry matter in the feeds listed
40 100% Dry Matter BasisData presented is calculated on the basis that all moisture has been removed
41 As-Fed BasisData is calculated on the basis of the average amount of moisture found in the feed as it is used on the farm
50 Step 1Identify the kind, age, weight and function of the animal(s) for which the ration is being formulated.In our text suggested rations and feeding programs are found in the units on the specific species; these may be used for formulating rations.
51 Step 2Consult the table of nutrients to determine the nutrient need(s) of the animal(s)These requirements are called FEEDING STANDARDSBased on average requirementsMay not meet the needs under specific conditionsAdjustments may be needed if unusual conditions exsists
52 Step 3 Choose the feeds to be used Consult the feed composition table to determine the nutrient content of the selected feedNutrient contents differ with species
53 Step 4 Calculate the amount of each feed to be used in the ration Sevral methods are available to do this but we will use the Pearson Square Method
54 Step 5 Check the ration formulated against the needs of the animal(s) If there is/are excessive amount(s) of a nutrient(s) present it may be necessary to reformulate the ration
55 Determining Ration Costs Check the ration cost to see if it is the most economicalCalculate cost per pound or per tonDaily cost of feeding may also be calculated if a daily consumption rate is know
57 The Pearson Square Cannot balance rations by trial and error Pearson Square simplifies balancing rationsCan only use two feeds
58 Using the Pearson Square EXAMPLE2,000 pounds of feed is needed to feed a 100-pound growing hog. A feeding standards table shows that a 14% crude protein ration is needed. Corn and Soybean oil meal (SBOM) are selected as feeds. A feed composition table shows that corn has 8.9% and SBOM has 45.8% crude protein on an as-fed basis. How much corn and soybean oil meal need to be mixed together for 2,000 pounds of feed?
59 STEP 1 Draw a square with lines connecting the opposite corners. Write the percent of crude protein (14) in the center of the square.14
60 STEP 2Write the feeds to be used and their crude protein percents at the left hand corners of the square.Corn 8.914Soybeanoil meal 45.8
61 STEP 3Subtract the smaller number from the larger, along the diagonal lines. Write the differences at the opposite end of the diagonals.31.8=Corn 8.914Soybeanoil meal 45.85.1=14-8.9
62 STEP 3The difference between the percent protein in the soybean oil meal and the percent protein in the ration are the parts of corn needed.The difference between the percent protein in the corn and the percent protein in the ration are the parts of soybean oil meal neeeded.The sum of the numbers on the right equals the difference in the numbers on the left. This fact is used as a check to see if the square is set up correctly.
64 STEP 4Divide the parts of each feed by the total parts to find the percent of each feed in the rationCorn 31.8/36.9x100=86.2%Soybean oil meal 5.1/36.9x100=13.8%
65 STEP 5It is known that 2,000 pounds of the mixture is needed. To find the pounds of each feed in the mix, the percent of each feed is multiplied by the total pounds of the mixCorn 2,000 x 0.862= 1,724 poundsSBOM 2,000 x 0.138= 276 pounds*Numbers have been rounded to full pounds.
66 STEP 6Check the mix to ensure that the protein need is met. Multiply the pounds of the feed in the it’s precent protein .Corn 1,724 x 0.089= 153 lbs of CornSBOM 276 x 0.458= 126 lbs of SBOMAdd the pounds of protein together= 279Divide by the total weight of the mix279/2,000 x 100= 14%The mix is balanced for crude protein content!
67 Using the Pearson Square to Mix Two Grains with a Supplement (START) Can be used to find out how much of two grains should be mixed with a supplementProportions of grain must be known first
68 EXAMPLE2,000 pound mix of corn, oats and soybean oil meal is needed. The mix is to contain 16% Digestible Protein. A decision is made to use ¾ corn and ¼ oats in the mix. Thus, the proportion of corn to oats is 3:1. How many pounds of corn, oats and soybean oil meal are needed?
69 STEP 1Need to find the weighted average percent of protein in the corn and oats first.To do thisMultiply the proportion of corn (3) by the percent digestible protein in corn (7.1). Do the same for oats. Then add the two answers together and divide by the total parts (4). This answer is the weighted average percentage of digestible protein in the corn oats mix.
70 STEP 1 cont… 3 x 7.1=21.3 (Corn) 1 x 9.9= 9.9 (Oats) 31.2 31.2/4= 7.8% Digestible Protein in the corn-oats mix
71 Using the Pearson Square X Used in the same method as before to mix two feeds.On a sheet of paper, work out this problem3 parts Corn, 1 part oats 7.816Soybean oil meal 41.7
72 Using the Pearson Square Same method can be used for mixing two protein supplements and 1 grainCan also be used to mix 2 grains and 2 protein supplementsJust remember that the proportions of like feed must be decided upon before hand and the weighted average percent of protein foundAny measure of nutrients in the feed may be usedEnergy- TDN, NE, ME, DEProtein- CP, DP
75 Using Algebraic Equation to Balance Ration May be used instead of Pearson SquareBasic equations areX= pounds of grain neededY= pounds of supplementEquation #1X+Y= Total Pounds of Mix NeededEquation # 2(% Nutrient in grain) x (X) + (% Nutrient in Supplement) x (Y)= pounds of nutrient desired in mix
76 EXAMPLE Same problem as the 1st Pearson Square Example Mix of 2,000 lbs is to be balanced for protein using two feeds.
77 EXAMPLE cont… Place the desired values in equation 2 0.089X+0.458Y=280 REMEMBER TO EXPRESS % AS DECIMALS0.089X+0.458Y=280280 is found by multiplying the quantity of feed (2,000 lbs) by the percent (14) [or the amount] of nutrient desired: 2,000x0.14)
78 EXAMPLE cont…Either X or Y must be canceled by the multiplication of equation 1 by the percentage of nutrients for either X or Y, and the resulting equation 3 is subtracted from equation 2. This example uses the percentage crude protein for corn (0.089), giving equation 30.089X+0.089Y=178 (178 is found by multiplying times 2,000 lbs)
79 EXAMPLE cont… SUBTRACT equation 3 from equation 2 0.089X+0.458Y=280-0.089X-0.089Y= -1780.369Y=102Y= 276 lbs soybean mealX may then be found by substituting the value of Y in equation 1 and solvingX+276=2,000X=2,X= 1,724 lbs of corn
80 Algebraic Equations Get the same result as Pearson square May be used to balance rations using 3 or more feedsSame initial step must be taken as when using the Pearson Square—group similar feeds into two groups and determine the proportions of each to be used in each groupAfter this is done the same procedure as above is followed.