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Late Middle Ages 1000 – 1500 CE World History I Heritage High School

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Presentation on theme: "Late Middle Ages 1000 – 1500 CE World History I Heritage High School"— Presentation transcript:

1 Late Middle Ages 1000 – 1500 CE World History I Heritage High School
Mr. Swartz

2 Essential Questions: What events helped nation-states develop in England, France, Spain, and Russia? What were key events and effects of the Crusades? How did the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) alter Europe economically and socially?

3 What were the key events and effects of the Crusades?
Essential Question: What were the key events and effects of the Crusades?

4 The Crusades The Crusades were carried out by political and religious leaders of Europe to take control of the Holy Land from the Muslims The Byzantine emperor asked the pope to assist in defending themselves against the Islamic Empire. The Muslim Turks (aka the Ottoman Turks) were trying to conquer Constantinople and large parts of the Byzantine Empire.

5 Pope Urban II Pope Urban II responded by calling for a “holy war” or crusade to push back the Muslims and “reclaim” the Holy Land The Holy Land was parts of Middle East including Israel, Syria, and particularly the city of Jerusalem In his speech calling for the crusade, he said that those who fought and died in the Crusades that all of their sins would be forgiven and they would be guaranteed a spot in heaven thousands of people responded to the call

6 The Crusaders There were also economic, societal, and religious motives for the Crusades: Kings and the Church: a way to get rid of knights who needed a purpose so they would stop fighting each other and threatening the peace in the kingdoms Younger Sons: a way to gain prestige, status, and maybe even some wealth in society since in medieval times since the oldest son inherited everything Knights and Commoners - they were fired up by their religious zeal (passion)

7 Video Clip The Dark Ages Part 10 - The Crusades
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8 The First and Second Crusades
Began in 1096 No strategy and mostly unprepared troops Successful in retaking Jerusalem on July 15, 1099 Most of the warriors went home afterwards Left city vulnerable to recapture which happened in the Second Crusade (1147) 1187: Jerusalem falls to Muslims under Saladin

9 The Third Crusade Saladin (1138 – 1193)
Began in 1189 Produced two highly respected military leaders Saladin (1138 – 1193) Richard the Lionheart (1157 – 1199) from England After series of battles, the two agreed to a truce Jerusalem remained in Muslim control Christian pilgrims would have safe passage

10 The Fourth Crusade Began in 1204
Greedy Christian warriors entered Constantinople Looted the city Set fire to most of the city Another cause of the Great Schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church

11 The Other Crusades There were about nine crusades between and 1272 The later ones were not blessed by the pope Most of the Crusades ended in Muslim victory especially the later ones Children’s Crusade stories about groups of children or the “wandering poor” that wanted to go to Jerusalem many died along the way or were sold into slavery

12 Effects of the Crusades
Weakened the Pope and nobles Strengthened monarchs Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and Muslims Weakened the Byzantine Empire Increased demand for Middle Eastern products Stimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern markets Encouraged use of credit and banking Brought Greco-Roman studies and Muslim innovations back to Europe which helped revive learning and creativity

13 The Crusades

14 Name 2 effects of the Crusades.
Review Question: Name 2 effects of the Crusades.

15 The Emergence of Nation-States
A nation-state is a large group of people who Are ruled by one central government Share a common language Feel a sense of loyalty to the group The rise of nation-states is one of the most important developments in Europe in the late Middle Ages Result of European monarchs consolidating (or merging) power Marked end of feudalism and the decline of the political power of the Church

16 Nation-States (con’t.)
Before the rise of nation-states, most people more concerned with local rulers than who was king Might not have even shared same language as the king People went to war for local lords Thought of themselves as Christians, united by the Christian Church By the year 1430, this attitude had completely changed

17 Key Events: England

18 William the Conqueror William – Duke of Normandy
1066 – crossed English Channel to add the rich Anglo-Saxon lands to his personal property October 14, 1066 – fought the Saxons under Harold Godwinson and won after Harold was killed United most of England and most of present- day France under his control

19 Video Clip William the Conqueror - Justin Timberlake’s “Sexyback”
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20 Development of Common Law
Under King Henry II (ruled 1154 – 1189), helped elevate the importance of common law Strengthened royal courts of justice by sending royal judges to every part of England at least once a year Collected taxes, settled lawsuits, punished crimes Introduced use of a jury in the courts Over time, the rulings by the royal judges formed a unified body of law Became basis for law in England and the United States In the US, this led to “judicial power” or the power of the bench to legislate as laid out in Article III of the Constitution

21 Magna Carta King John was a bad king who was mean to his subjects and tried to squeeze money out of them to finance his wars The nobles forced him to sign the Magna Carta on June 15, 1215 Main goal – limit the king’s power and protect rights The Magna Carta guaranteed certain basic political rights No taxation without representation Right to a jury trial Right to protection of the law

22 Parliament In 1295, King Edward I needed funds for war against the French Summoned two citizens of wealth and two knights from every part of England to serve as a parliament, or legislative body Brought together by the kings whenever a new tax or funds were needed Eventually became more and more powerful Developed into two assemblies House of Commons House of Lords

23 Hundred Years’ War (1337 – 1453) Fought between England and France
Started over claim to French throne Important battles: Battle of Crecy (Aug.26, 1346): English archers defeated French knights Battle of Poitiers (1356): English victory Battle of Agincourt (1415): English victory These battles end the usefulness of knights

24 Joan of Arc (1412 – 1431) Convinced God sent her to rescue France
Led French victory at Battle of Orleans Helped make Charles VII king of France Captured in 1430 and turned over to the Church Condemned as a witch and a heretic Burned at the stake on May 30, 1431

25 Impact of the Hundred Years’ War
Ends with French driving out the English Weakened the economies of both countries Gave birth to nationalism People now thought of kings as a national leader Now fought for the glory of the country, not a local feudal ruler Strengthened the English Parliament Strengthened the French monarchy

26 France Hugh Capet – king of France Established French throne in Paris
His dynasty gradually expanded their control over most of France Hundred Years’ War helped define France as nation Joan of Arc was a unifying factor

27 Spain In 710, the Moors had conquered Spain
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella married and ruled jointly under a Christian monarchy Reconquista – removed Muslims and Jews from Spain The Spanish Inquisition: program to make sure Jews that stayed had converted to Christianity those who were caught practicing Jewish traditions were burned at the stake Phillip II – expanded the Spanish Empire into the Western Hemisphere

28 Video Clip History of the World Part I - The Spanish Inquisition
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29 Russia Mongols conquered Russia in the early 1200s
Gave local control to princes who paid tribute Ivan the Great refused to pay the tribute Threw off the rule of the Mongols Centralized power in Moscow Expanded territory as more Russians came under control of single Russian government Became the first czar (Russian for caesar) Power became centralized in the hands of the czar The Orthodox Church influenced unification of Russia

30 Review Question: What was an event that helped establish England and France as nation-states?

31 Impact of the Black Death
During the 14th Century – the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) decimated the populations of Asia and Europe Spread by fleas on black rats Caused drastic decline in population Killed at least 1/3 of Europe’s population Led to scarcity of labor Freed towns from feudal obligations Disruption of trade Decline in power and influence of the Roman Catholic Church

32 End of the Middle Ages The Mongols invaded Russia, China, and Muslim states in Southwest Asia Destroyed cities and countryside Created an empire (The Ottoman Empire) Revival of learning ushered in the Renaissance Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 Ended the Byzantine Empire Became the capital of the Ottoman Empire Renamed Istanbul

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