Presentation on theme: "Late Middle Ages 1000 – 1500 CE World History I Heritage High School"— Presentation transcript:
1 Late Middle Ages 1000 – 1500 CE World History I Heritage High School Mr. Swartz
2 Essential Questions:What events helped nation-states develop in England, France, Spain, and Russia?What were key events and effects of the Crusades?How did the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) alter Europe economically and socially?
3 What were the key events and effects of the Crusades? Essential Question:What were the key events and effects of the Crusades?
4 The CrusadesThe Crusades were carried out by political and religious leaders of Europe to take control of the Holy Land from the MuslimsThe Byzantine emperor asked the pope to assist in defending themselves against the Islamic Empire.The Muslim Turks (aka the Ottoman Turks) were trying to conquer Constantinople and large parts of the Byzantine Empire.
5 Pope Urban IIPope Urban II responded by calling for a “holy war” or crusade to push back the Muslims and “reclaim” the Holy LandThe Holy Land was parts of Middle East including Israel, Syria, and particularly the city of JerusalemIn his speech calling for the crusade, he said that those who fought and died in the Crusades that all of their sins would be forgiven and they would be guaranteed a spot in heaventhousands of people responded to the call
6 The CrusadersThere were also economic, societal, and religious motives for the Crusades:Kings and the Church: a way to get rid of knights who needed a purpose so they would stop fighting each other and threatening the peace in the kingdomsYounger Sons: a way to gain prestige, status, and maybe even some wealth in society since in medieval times since the oldest son inherited everythingKnights and Commoners - they were fired up by their religious zeal (passion)
7 Video Clip The Dark Ages Part 10 - The Crusades niTeTY7pw&safety_mode=true&persist_safety _mode=1
8 The First and Second Crusades Began in 1096No strategy and mostly unprepared troopsSuccessful in retaking Jerusalem on July 15, 1099Most of the warriors went home afterwardsLeft city vulnerable to recapture which happened in the Second Crusade (1147)1187: Jerusalem falls to Muslims under Saladin
9 The Third Crusade Saladin (1138 – 1193) Began in 1189Produced two highly respected military leadersSaladin (1138 – 1193)Richard the Lionheart (1157 – 1199) from EnglandAfter series of battles, the two agreed to a truceJerusalem remained in Muslim controlChristian pilgrims would have safe passage
10 The Fourth Crusade Began in 1204 Greedy Christian warriors entered ConstantinopleLooted the citySet fire to most of the cityAnother cause of the Great Schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church
11 The Other CrusadesThere were about nine crusades between and 1272The later ones were not blessed by the popeMost of the Crusades ended in Muslim victory especially the later onesChildren’s Crusadestories about groups of children or the “wandering poor” that wanted to go to Jerusalemmany died along the way or were sold into slavery
12 Effects of the Crusades Weakened the Pope and noblesStrengthened monarchsLeft a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and MuslimsWeakened the Byzantine EmpireIncreased demand for Middle Eastern productsStimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern marketsEncouraged use of credit and bankingBrought Greco-Roman studies and Muslim innovations back to Europe which helped revive learning and creativity
14 Name 2 effects of the Crusades. Review Question:Name 2 effects of the Crusades.
15 The Emergence of Nation-States A nation-state is a large group of people whoAre ruled by one central governmentShare a common languageFeel a sense of loyalty to the groupThe rise of nation-states is one of the most important developments in Europe in the late Middle AgesResult of European monarchs consolidating (or merging) powerMarked end of feudalism and the decline of the political power of the Church
16 Nation-States (con’t.) Before the rise of nation-states, most people more concerned with local rulers than who was kingMight not have even shared same language as the kingPeople went to war for local lordsThought of themselves as Christians, united by the Christian ChurchBy the year 1430, this attitude had completely changed
18 William the Conqueror William – Duke of Normandy 1066 – crossed English Channel to add the rich Anglo-Saxon lands to his personal propertyOctober 14, 1066 – fought the Saxons under Harold Godwinson and won after Harold was killedUnited most of England and most of present- day France under his control
19 Video Clip William the Conqueror - Justin Timberlake’s “Sexyback” Dw&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode= 1
20 Development of Common Law Under King Henry II (ruled 1154 – 1189), helped elevate the importance of common lawStrengthened royal courts of justice by sending royal judges to every part of England at least once a yearCollected taxes, settled lawsuits, punished crimesIntroduced use of a jury in the courtsOver time, the rulings by the royal judges formed a unified body of lawBecame basis for law in England and the United StatesIn the US, this led to “judicial power” or the power of the bench to legislate as laid out in Article III of the Constitution
21 Magna CartaKing John was a bad king who was mean to his subjects and tried to squeeze money out of them to finance his warsThe nobles forced him to sign the Magna Carta on June 15, 1215Main goal – limit the king’s power and protect rightsThe Magna Carta guaranteed certain basic political rightsNo taxation without representationRight to a jury trialRight to protection of the law
22 ParliamentIn 1295, King Edward I needed funds for war against the FrenchSummoned two citizens of wealth and two knights from every part of England to serve as a parliament, or legislative bodyBrought together by the kings whenever a new tax or funds were neededEventually became more and more powerfulDeveloped into two assembliesHouse of CommonsHouse of Lords
23 Hundred Years’ War (1337 – 1453) Fought between England and France Started over claim to French throneImportant battles:Battle of Crecy (Aug.26, 1346): English archers defeated French knightsBattle of Poitiers (1356): English victoryBattle of Agincourt (1415): English victoryThese battles end the usefulness of knights
24 Joan of Arc (1412 – 1431) Convinced God sent her to rescue France Led French victory at Battle of OrleansHelped make Charles VII king of FranceCaptured in 1430 and turned over to the ChurchCondemned as a witch and a hereticBurned at the stake on May 30, 1431
25 Impact of the Hundred Years’ War Ends with French driving out the EnglishWeakened the economies of both countriesGave birth to nationalismPeople now thought of kings as a national leaderNow fought for the glory of the country, not a local feudal rulerStrengthened the English ParliamentStrengthened the French monarchy
26 France Hugh Capet – king of France Established French throne in Paris His dynasty gradually expanded their control over most of FranceHundred Years’ War helped define France as nationJoan of Arc was a unifying factor
27 Spain In 710, the Moors had conquered Spain King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella married and ruled jointly under a Christian monarchyReconquista – removed Muslims and Jews from SpainThe Spanish Inquisition: program to make sure Jews that stayed had converted to Christianitythose who were caught practicing Jewish traditions were burned at the stakePhillip II – expanded the Spanish Empire into the Western Hemisphere
28 Video Clip History of the World Part I - The Spanish Inquisition eY&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode= 1
29 Russia Mongols conquered Russia in the early 1200s Gave local control to princes who paid tributeIvan the Great refused to pay the tributeThrew off the rule of the MongolsCentralized power in MoscowExpanded territory as more Russians came under control of single Russian governmentBecame the first czar (Russian for caesar)Power became centralized in the hands of the czarThe Orthodox Church influenced unification of Russia
30 Review Question:What was an event that helped establish England and France as nation-states?
31 Impact of the Black Death During the 14th Century – the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) decimated the populations of Asia and EuropeSpread by fleas on black ratsCaused drastic decline in populationKilled at least 1/3 of Europe’s populationLed to scarcity of laborFreed towns from feudal obligationsDisruption of tradeDecline in power and influence of the Roman Catholic Church
32 End of the Middle AgesThe Mongols invaded Russia, China, and Muslim states in Southwest AsiaDestroyed cities and countrysideCreated an empire (The Ottoman Empire)Revival of learning ushered in the RenaissanceConstantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453Ended the Byzantine EmpireBecame the capital of the Ottoman EmpireRenamed Istanbul