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Rise of Nations Rise of Nations Preview: nation-state –A nation-state is a country: Have a strong government Have political boundaries Are made up of.

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Presentation on theme: "Rise of Nations Rise of Nations Preview: nation-state –A nation-state is a country: Have a strong government Have political boundaries Are made up of."— Presentation transcript:


2 Rise of Nations Rise of Nations Preview: nation-state –A nation-state is a country: Have a strong government Have political boundaries Are made up of people with a common language & culture –How does this differ from what we have studied during the Middle Ages?

3 Middle Ages Decline of Feudalism and the Rise of Nations in England & France

4 Rise of Nations After decline of Rome, Western Europe fell under rule of many different groups of people Fighting occurred almost constantly among these groups Feudalism emerged as a form of government that offered protection

5 Rise of Nations Except for Charlemagne, kings had very little power because their lands & power was transferred to the nobles BUT, in 1100s European monarchs (kings) began to build strong nation-states Nation-state Nation-state is group of people under 1 government, with definite territorial borders, common culture & language

6 Strong Monarchies England & France were Europe’s 1 st nation-states The role of the monarchy (king) grew stronger in England & France in the 1300s Nationalism The growth of nations led to the beginning of Nationalism (loyalty to a nation-state rather than feudal lord)

7 England After the collapse of the Roman Empire, England was dominated by 2 Germanic tribes: Angles & Saxons; groups combined in 866 & kingdom became known as England (“Angleland”)

8 England Norman Invasion Norman Invasion—William, Duke of Normandy invaded England in 1066 & became a very powerful king of England (became known as William the Conqueror)

9 England common law William’s grandson, Henry II, set up system of common law—using judges & courts to make sure law is obeyed –Grand Juries –Grand Juries— examined crimes –Petit Juries –Petit Juries—decided guilt or innocence of suspects

10 England Magna Carta Henry II’s son, John, was weak & unpopular king who upset feudal lords; forced him to sign Magna Carta in 1215 Great Council –1 st document to limit the power of a king (king could not collect taxes without approval of a Great Council of nobles)

11 England Parliament As middle class began to grow, they wanted representation in Great Council; 1295, king allowed middle class to join—became known as Parliament –Parliament limited king by advising him on government decisions

12 Stronger Monarchies—War of the Roses In 1455, England had a civil war as 2 royal families claimed the throne: Lancaster (red rose) & York (white) Henry Tudor was related to both families & ended the civil war—Henry was then named king

13 Stronger Monarchies—War of the Roses Effects: Effects: –Many nobles died or fled during war, which strengthened monarchy & further reduced feudalism

14 France KEY IDEA KEY IDEA: Instead of creating a nation-state with strong king then limiting power of king like England, France creates a nation-state with strong king who got stronger

15 France After Charlemagne died, Frankish kings were very weak; nobles in France ruled as if there was no king Hugh Capet In 987 Hugh Capet took French throne from a weak king; strengthened French monarchy –Freed peasants from feudal lords; people became loyal to king not lords

16 France Estates-General Created Estates-General—group of nobles, church members, peasants to help raise taxes –But, Estates-General never became as powerful in France as Parliament was in England…so… –The French king grew more powerful than the English king (who was limited by Parliament)

17 First Estate—Clergy (Priests) Second Estate—Nobles Third Estate—Commoners

18 Complete Strengthening Monarchies Complete Strengthening Monarchies Use the following word bank to complete the sentences provided: –Hugh Capet –Parliament –Crusades –William –War of the Roses –100 Years War –Limited –Magna Carta –Black Death –Monarch

19 Middle Ages: Rise of Spain as a Nation

20 Spain The Islamic Empire controlled most of Spain since 750 BUT, Christians began to retake Spain around time of Crusades (quest known as Reconquista) Reconquista By late 1400s, the Reconquista was successful; Spain was ruled by exclusively by Christian kings But Spain was divided into feudal territories—it was not unified


22 Islamic (Muslim) Territory

23 Islamic Territory


25 Spain Spain was united when Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469 Spanish Inquisition Began Spanish Inquisition—used trials, torture, imprisonment to rid Spain of all Jews & Muslims (“one king, one law, one faith”)




29 Middle Ages: Rise of Russia as a Nation

30 Byzantines Influence Slavs Slavs—nomads migrated from Europe to Asia; warred with Byzantines Because of contact, Slavs began to convert to Christianity & adopted many Byzantine customs Cyrillic Alphabet –Cyril developed alphabet so they could read Bible—Cyrillic Alphabet –Russian king was impressed with Hagia Sophia, developed Russia like Constantinople, not Rome


32 Russia During 1200s, the Mongols invaded & ruled over all of Russia (& Asia and China, too!) tribute But, in 1480 Ivan III refused to pay the Mongols tribute (taxes) & broke Russia free from Mongol control czar Ivan III became czar (Slavic word for king) & made Moscow capital of new empire


34 Russia Anastasia Romanov Under Ivan IV, the power of feudal lords was weakened & Russia conquered more land from Mongols; Ivan IV married Anastasia Romanov (Romanov family will be important later!!) But, Ivan IV ruled by terror, murdered thousands of Russians, even his own son (Was Ivan IV insane?)

35 The Rise of Nations Review For each new nation-state, use the textbox to identify the significant event(s) that led to the rise of a powerful king

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