2 Black Self-RelianceCountless individuals and groups worked tirelessly to improve the lives and situations of African Americans during the late 1800s and early 1900s.
3 The Progressive Movement Reform movement of the late 1800s and early 1900skey issues wereterrible povertyunfair business practicesthe lack of rights for womenracial discriminationProgressives published photos of horrible living conditions faced by the urban poor; wrote moving pieces about the unfair treatment of black AmericansMany black activists among Progressives; heart of message was idea of self-reliance, that blacks should not have to depend on anyone else to succeedTo attain self-reliance, black people needed the same educational and economic opportunities that whites enjoyed
5 Examples of Black Progressives Ida B. Wells, an outspoken critic of lynching she also wrote passionately for increased rights for blacks and womenMary Church Terrell traveled around the country calling for the same rights for women as for men
6 Booker T. WashingtonVocal black Progressive; had been born a slave in 1856 in Virginia to a black mother and a white fatherHis dream was to learn to read and write; a black school finally openedAt the age of 16, he went to the Hampton Institute in Virginia; after graduation, Washington got a job as a teacherBooker T. Washington organized first successful national black business association of the early twentieth century
7 Tuskegee InstituteWashington felt he could help black people succeed by teaching them; accepted the chance to open the Tuskegee Institute in 1881At that time Tuskegee was nothing more than a rundown old plantation and a barn; by his death in 1915, the institute had an annual endowment in excess of $2 millionThe Tuskegee Institute founded to train teachers and to teach poor blacks trades so they could succeed; school was successfulEventually focus changed from vocational training to a more traditional college curriculum; began offering college degreesNow called Tuskegee University, the school today has an enrollment of more than 3,000
8 The Atlanta Compromise What was Washington urging African Americans to do? What was he urging white Americans to do?What statements in this address made this speech appropriate for a white audience? Explain.What were Washington’s long-term goals for African Americans?
9 W. E. B. Du BoisDu Bois was born to free parents in 1868 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts.One of the leaders of the Black Protest movement; a brilliant economics professor at Atlanta UniversityDu Bois feared if blacks just waited to gain full equality they would be headed back to slaveryAt early age won a scholarship to Fisk University; earned a Ph.D. from Harvard University, the first black student ever to do soIn 1903 penned The Souls of Black Folk
10 The Niagara MovementDu Bois set out to change the problems in society. Black Americans should have three things: the right to vote, civic equality, and the education of youth according to their ability.These men were determined to create an organization which would aggressively push for full civil rights for all African Americans
11 The NAACPOn February 12, 1909, the 100th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln’s birth, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was born.W. E. B. Du Bois and the Niagara Movement joined with white reformers to found the NAACPThe magazine was called The Crisis; by 1920 it was selling as many as 100,000 copies a month
14 The NAACPGuinn v. United States (1915), in which the Supreme Court declared the “grandfather clauses” in Oklahoma to be illegalBuchanan v. Warley (1917), in which a Louisville, Kentucky, law that had forced black people to live only in certain sections of town was declared unconstitutionalMoore v. Dempsey (1923), in which 5 black men convicted of murder in Arkansas who protested that their rights had been violated due to public pressure on the judge and jury were given a new trial
15 National Urban LeagueBy 1911 three organizations centralized their efforts; new organization called the National League on Urban Conditions Among NegroesIt exists today as the National Urban League; devoting itself to helping African Americans in cities make progress in all walks of lifeHas helped newly arrived southern blacks adjust to the North; made training programs to help people progress beyond unskilled jobs