Presentation on theme: "16.2 New Black Organizations. The NAACP In its early years the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was a militant organization."— Presentation transcript:
The NAACP In its early years the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was a militant organization dedicated to racial justice It was led and financed primarily by whites The NAACP believed that black citizens should fully enjoy the political and civil rights guaranteed to all Americans by the Constitution
The NAACP The NAACP supported court cases that challenged oppressive laws They won their first major legal victory in the case Guinn v. United States which overturned Oklahoma’s grandfather clause In 1917, the group won a case that struck down a law that prohibited the sale of real estate between white and black residents They also proposed a national anti-lynching law called the Dyer bill which passed in the House of Representatives but not the Senate
Du Bois and The Crisis W.E.B. Du Bois was the most prominent black figure associated with the NAACP He edited their newspaper The Crisis, in this publication Du Bois pushed for equal rights and an end to white racism This publication became required reading in many black homes It had 30,000 subscribers when the NAACP had only 3,000 members
Washington vs. the NAACP Booker T. Washington worked to undermine the NAACP and viewed it as a force against Tuskegee He felt that the organization threatened his own efforts and used his influence to attack the organization in the press Ultimately the his efforts failed and the NAACP’s ideas replaced Washington’s approach of accommodation
The Urban League The Urban League was founded in 1910 and it’s goal was to alleviate conditions black people faced when they moved into large cities The Urban League was created by black and white progressives. It worked to improve housing, medical care, and recreational facilities among black residents living in segregated neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Nashville and other large cities They also assisted in starting the Big Brother and Big Sister programs
Black Women and the Club Movement As early as the 1870’s and 1880’s black women began creating clubs and organizations to discuss social and religious matters. But, by the early 20 th century these groups became involved with community problems The National Association of Colored Women (NACW) was founded in 1896 and worked to help black people in urban areas They worked to eradicate poverty, end discrimination, and promote education, form kindergartens, and day nurseries.
Phyllis Wheatley Clubs Black women formed Phyllis Wheatley clubs and homes across the nation The homes offered a place to stay for single, black working women who didn’t have a place to stay in the growing cities across America The clubs provided nurseries and classes in domestic skills
Anna Julia Cooper and Black Feminism Anna Julia Cooper worked to dispel negative stereotypes about black women and believed women would play a decisive role in the destiny of her people She was born a slave but eventually earned her PHD and was a teacher, author and principal for many years She stressed education and the importance of black women in the future
Women’s Suffrage Black women were involved in the long struggle for women’s suffrage (voting rights) Women’s right to vote meant political power for more African Americans and was therefore opposed by white southerners Although, the 19 th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified in 1920, most African Americans were still denied this right in the south due to poll taxes, literacy tests and grandfather clauses
The Black Elite The group that W.E.B. Du Bois described as the talented tenth were responsible for forming protest organizations, joined reform efforts and organized self help groups They were middle-upper class black people who were better educated than most Americans The American Negro Academy was formed by these black intellectuals where they met to publish and discuss works on history religion and science The black elites also formed many black fraternaties and sororities across the universities of the country
Assignment 1.What were the purposes and aims of the NAACP? 2. What important early legal cases/issues was the NAACP involved in supporting? 3. Describe Booker T. Washington’s relationship with the NAACP. 4. How did black women foster progress among African Americans? 5. What organizations were formed by the black elite in this era?