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Presentation on theme: "AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE PROGRESSIVE ERA Discrimination and Racism."— Presentation transcript:


2 Segregation (2 types)  Segregation enforced by laws  enforced in the South under Jim Crow Laws  Becomes a reality for the nation with Plessy vs. Ferguson  Segregation based on unwritten laws like custom and tradition De Jure SegregationDe Facto Segregation

3 Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896  Homer Plessy was 1/8 African American and bought a white train ticket in Jim Crow segregated Louisiana…denied seat  Case goes to the US Supreme Court  Court’s decision  uphold and strengthen Jim Crow segregation  “Separate but equal” is fair Is separate ever equal?...Justice Harlan did not think so, only Justice that went against the 8-1 decision (Harlan Dissent) Sets up de jure segregation


5 African American Reformers  Urged for AA to be patient while waiting for equality (“Atlanta Compromise Speech”)  Eventually AA would gain white respect  “Cast down your bucket” with the people who share the same aspirations  Be economically independent Become craftsmen and learn a skill Setup Tuskegee Institute for vocational education  Urged AA to demand their rights immediately or else fall victim to permanent racism  Promoted an academic education not skill/trade based  Called Washington’s speech the Atlanta Compromise since he “gave in” Booker T. Washington W.E.B. Du Bois VS.

6 Other Reformers  Ida B. Wells Barnett  Wrote about the horrors of lynching (execution, usually by hanging, without a trial) in the South  Helped form the NAACP


8 Progressive Reforms for AA  Niagara Movement:  Against the idea of gradual progress  Disagreed with Booker T. Washington  Wanted full voting rights for AA

9 NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People:  4 front campaign:  Socially free from insult  Mentally free from ignorance  Physically free from low wage labor  Politically free from disenfranchisement  The Crisis was the official magazine of the NAACP  Founded by Du Bois

10 Disenfranchisement  Taking away the right of AA to vote because there were loopholes in the 15 th Amendment  4 strategies  Through intimidation, KKK  Through laws: Grandfather Clause: AA could vote if his ancestors had voted in 1866…15 th Amendment not passed until 1870 Poll Tax: AA must pay a tax to vote, AA can’t afford it Literacy Tests: AA had been denied an education so they can’t pass the test

11 Wilmington Race Riot, 1898  Wilmington is a progressive town  AA outnumber whites  AA lawyers, businessmen, and entrepreneurs  able to manage own affairs and buy homes in city  many participated in local government holding positions  Whites maintain an upper class elite  Election of 1898  Democrats try to oust (Black) Republican/Populist majority  Day after election  group of rioters are led to AA newspaper  break and burn down building and press  Gun fire erupts across Wilmington, 1000s die  AA leadership is banished from Wilmington

12 Migration  AA leave the South to go North (Land of Hope)  Looking to:  Leave racism behind  Find jobs  Better life in general

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