2 Module 14How do human needs and job designs influence motivation to work?How do thought processes and decisions affect motivation to work?What role does reinforcement play in motivation?
3 14.1 Human Needs and Job Design Maslow described a hierarchy of needs topped by self-actualizationAlderfer’s ERG theory deals with existence, relatedness and growth needsMcClelland identified acquired needs for achievement, power and affiliationHerzberg’s two-factor theory focuses on higher-order need satisfactionThe core characteristics model integrates motivation and job design
4 HUMAN NEEDS Maslow’s Hierarchy Motivation – level, direction and persistence of effort expended at workMaslow’s hierarchyNeedsUnfulfilled desires that stimulate people to actLower order needsPhysiological, safety and social needsHigher order needsEsteem and self-actualization
6 HUMAN NEEDS Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence Needsare desires for physiological and material well-being. Relatedness needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships.Relatedness Needsare desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships.Growth Needsare desires for continued psychological growth and development.
7 HUMAN NEEDS McClelland’s Acquired Needs Three acquired needs that vary in strength among peopleNeed for Achievementis the desire to do something better, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.Need for Poweris the desire to control, influence, or be responsible for other people.Need for AffiliationIs the desire to establish and maintain good relations with other people.
8 HUMAN NEEDS McClelland’s Acquired Needs Two forms of need for powerNeed for personal powerNeed for social power
9 HUMAN NEEDS Herzberg Two-Factor Theory Hygiene Factors found in the job contextworking conditionsinterpersonal relationsorganizational policiessalaryMotivator Factors found in job contentsense of achievementrecognitionresponsibilityadvancementpersonal growth.
10 JOB DESIGN Core Characteristics Model Allocation of specific tasks to individuals and groupsJob enrichmentAdds opportunities for satisfying higher-order needs to a job by adding opportunities for planning and controlling work
11 JOB DESIGN Core Characteristics Model Five Core Job CharacteristicsSkill varietyTask identityTask significanceAutonomyFeedback from the job itself
12 14.2 Thought Processes and Decisions Equity theory explains how social comparisons can motivate individual behaviorExpectancy theory considers motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valenceGoal-setting theory shows that well-chosen and well-set goals can be motivating
13 THOUGHT PROCESSES Equity Theory Equity theory explains how social comparisons can motivate individual behaviorPerceived negative inequityAttempt to restore equity by working less or quittingPerceived positive inequityAttempt to restore equity by extra effort
14 THOUGHT PROCESSES Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory considers motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valenceExpectancy“Can I achieve the desired level of task performance?”Instrumentality“What work outcomes will be received as a result of the performance?”Valence“How highly do I value work outcomes?”
16 THOUGHT PROCESSES Goal Setting Theory Goal-setting theory shows that well-chosen and well-set goals can be motivating
17 Punishment connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequences 14.3 ReinforcementOperant conditioning influences behavior by controlling its consequencesPositive reinforcement connects desirable behavior with pleasant consequencesPunishment connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequences
18 REINFORCEMENT Law of Effect The law of effect states that behavior followed by a pleasant consequence is likely to be repeated; behavior followed by an unpleasant consequence is unlikely to be repeated.
19 REINFORCEMENT Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning – B. F. SkinnerInfluences behavior by controlling its consequences.Positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior by making a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence.Negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by making the avoidance of an undesirable consequence contingent on its occurrence.
20 REINFORCEMENT Operant Conditioning Punishment discourages by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence.Extinction discourages a behavior by making the removal of a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence.
22 REINFORCEMENT Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement connects desirable behavior with pleasant consequencesLaw of contingent reinforcementReward only when desirable behavior is demonstratedLaw of immediate reinforcementReward immediately after the desirable behavior is demonstrated
23 REINFORCEMENT Positive Reinforcement ShapingCreating a new behavior by positive reinforcement of similar behaviorsContinuous reinforcementReward every time behavior is exhibitedIntermittent reinforcementReward behavior periodically
24 REINFORCEMENT Punishment Connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequencesDeny a rewardNo raise/pay reductionReprimand
25 Module 14 CasePixar Animation Studios – Home of the Creative Geniuses