Presentation on theme: "Module 14 Motivation. How do human needs and job designs influence motivation to work? How do thought processes and decisions affect motivation to work?"— Presentation transcript:
Module 14 Motivation
How do human needs and job designs influence motivation to work? How do thought processes and decisions affect motivation to work? What role does reinforcement play in motivation?
14.1 Human Needs and Job Design Maslow described a hierarchy of needs topped by self-actualization Alderfer’s ERG theory deals with existence, relatedness and growth needs McClelland identified acquired needs for achievement, power and affiliation Herzberg’s two-factor theory focuses on higher-order need satisfaction The core characteristics model integrates motivation and job design
HUMAN NEEDS Maslow’s Hierarchy Motivation – level, direction and persistence of effort expended at work Maslow’s hierarchy –Needs Unfulfilled desires that stimulate people to act –Lower order needs Physiological, safety and social needs –Higher order needs Esteem and self-actualization
HUMAN NEEDS Maslow’s Hierarchy
HUMAN NEEDS Alderfer’s ERG Theory Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence Needs are desires for physiological and material well-being. Relatedness needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships. Relatedness Needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships. Growth Needs are desires for continued psychological growth and development.
HUMAN NEEDS McClelland’s Acquired Needs Three acquired needs that vary in strength among people Need for Achievement is the desire to do something better, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. Need for Power is the desire to control, influence, or be responsible for other people. Need for Affiliation Is the desire to establish and maintain good relations with other people.
HUMAN NEEDS McClelland’s Acquired Needs Two forms of need for power –Need for personal power –Need for social power
Hygiene Factors found in the job context working conditions interpersonal relations organizational policies salary Motivator Factors found in job content sense of achievement recognition responsibility advancement personal growth. HUMAN NEEDS Herzberg Two-Factor Theory
JOB DESIGN Core Characteristics Model Job design –Allocation of specific tasks to individuals and groups Job enrichment –Adds opportunities for satisfying higher-order needs to a job by adding opportunities for planning and controlling work
JOB DESIGN Core Characteristics Model Five Core Job CharacteristicsSkill varietyTask identityTask significanceAutonomyFeedback from the job itself
14.2 Thought Processes and Decisions Equity theory explains how social comparisons can motivate individual behavior Expectancy theory considers motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valence Goal-setting theory shows that well- chosen and well-set goals can be motivating
THOUGHT PROCESSES Equity Theory Equity theory explains how social comparisons can motivate individual behavior –Perceived negative inequity Attempt to restore equity by working less or quitting –Perceived positive inequity Attempt to restore equity by extra effort
THOUGHT PROCESSES Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory considers motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valence Expectancy “Can I achieve the desired level of task performance?” Instrumentality “What work outcomes will be received as a result of the performance?” Valence “How highly do I value work outcomes?”
THOUGHT PROCESSES Expectancy Theory
THOUGHT PROCESSES Goal Setting Theory Goal-setting theory shows that well- chosen and well-set goals can be motivating
14.3 Reinforcement Operant conditioning influences behavior by controlling its consequences Positive reinforcement connects desirable behavior with pleasant consequences Punishment connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequences
REINFORCEMENT Law of Effect The law of effect states that behavior followed by a pleasant consequence is likely to be repeated; behavior followed by an unpleasant consequence is unlikely to be repeated.
REINFORCEMENT Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning – B. F. Skinner –Influences behavior by controlling its consequences. –Positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior by making a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence. –Negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by making the avoidance of an undesirable consequence contingent on its occurrence.
REINFORCEMENT Operant Conditioning –Punishment discourages by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence. –Extinction discourages a behavior by making the removal of a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence.
REINFORCEMENT Operant Conditioning
REINFORCEMENT Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement connects desirable behavior with pleasant consequences –Law of contingent reinforcement Reward only when desirable behavior is demonstrated –Law of immediate reinforcement Reward immediately after the desirable behavior is demonstrated
REINFORCEMENT Positive Reinforcement Shaping –Creating a new behavior by positive reinforcement of similar behaviors Continuous reinforcement –Reward every time behavior is exhibited Intermittent reinforcement –Reward behavior periodically
REINFORCEMENT Punishment Punishment –Connects undesirable behavior with unpleasant consequences Deny a reward No raise/pay reduction Reprimand
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