Allah Muhammad Islam Muslim Hijrah Mosque Hajj Qur’an Sunna Shari’a
Most of the land on the Arabian Peninsula consists of desert Few oasis’ and a small strip of land in southern Arabia can support agriculture Area was populated by nomadic herders 600’s many began to settle around the oasis’ and market towns along the western coast of Arabia
Crossroads of Trade and Ideas: 600’s trade routes connected Arabia to the major ocean and trade routes around the world Goods from the Persian and Byzantine Empires were bought and traded throughout Arabia Trade routes also brought information and ideas from the outside world to Arabia
Mecca City in Western Arabia Caravans of pilgrims stop in Mecca to worship at Ka’aba Ancient shrine of worship Arabs associate this house with Abraham; Hebrew prophet and believer in one God. Over the years the Ka’aba was home to nearly 360 idols from many different tribes Belief in one God (Allah), existed in Arabia
Muhammad (570 AD) Born into a wealthy Meccan family Orphaned at age of 6; raised by grandfather and uncle At 25; became a trader and manager for a wealthy business women named Khadijah- later would marry Took great interest in religion, spent time alone in prayer and meditaion
Revelations Age 40 Muhammad’s life would change forever; While meditating in a cave near Mecca he heard a voice call to him According to Muslim faith it was the voice of the angel Gabriel; who told Muhammad he was the messenger of Allah Muhammad became convinced that the voice who spoke to him was that of Allah Began to teach that Allah was the only God and that all other gods should be abandoned Islam was created.
Revelations Islam: means “submission to the will of Allah” A Muslim is someone who believes in Islam Muslim: means “one who is submitted” 613 Muhammad began to preach in Mecca to mixed reviews Some feared that his monotheistic beliefs would ruin Mecca’s pilgrimage
The Hijrah (622 AD) After his followers were attacked Muhammad left Mecca He moved to the town of Yathrib, 200 miles north of Mecca The migration was known as Hijrah The town of Yathrib became known as Medina In Medina Muhammad united the Arabs and Jews living their as one community
Returning to Mecca Growing tension between Mecca and Medina led to Muhammad gaining military control 630 AD Muhammad and 10,000 of his followers marched to Mecca The Meccans surrendered Muhammad destroyed the idols in the Ka’aba and converted many Islam 2 years later Muhammad died at 62 Great strides in uniting the Arabian Pennisula under Islam
There is only one God There is good and evil Each individual is responsible for his/her own life
The Five Pillars Faith- “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah” Prayer- Five times a day they must face Mecca and pray. They may gather in a mosque or where ever Alms- All Muslims must give to the poor; through a religious tax Fasting- During Ramadan Muslims fast from dawn till sunset. Reminder spiritual needs are more than physical needs Pilgrimage- those that are physically and financially capable must make a hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca
A Way of Life: Five pillars ensure Muslims live their religion while serving the community Other beliefs, morals,and laws make up Muslim Society Forbidden to eat pork, drink intoxicating beverages Friday afternoon set aside for communal worship No religious hierarchy; everyone prays directly to Allah Ulama- scholar class; religious teachers who apply the words and deeds of Muhammad to everyday life
Sources of Authority Original source is Allah speaking to Muhammad through Gabriel the angel While Muhammad lived the followers memorized his revelations Collected into a book called the Qur’an- Muslim Holy Book Qur’an is written in Arabic; only version to be considered true word of Allah Arabic language used to help unify the Muslim people
Sources of Authority Sunna- Muhammad’s example was the proper way of living Shari’a- system of law that regulates the family life, moral conduct, business and community life of the Muslims
Links to Judaism and Christianity Muslims believe that Allah is the same God that is worshiped in Christianity and Judaism Muslims view Jesus as a prophet, not the son of God Muslims refer to Christians and Jews as “people of the book” – They all have holy books Muslims trace their ancestry to Abraham, just like the Jews and Christians Shari’a law requires Muslim leaders to extend religious tolerance to Christians and Jews.