Presentation on theme: "ISLAM. EARLY BEGINNINGS A prophet named Muhammad was born in 570 A.D. He was orphaned at age 6 and raised by an uncle and grandfather. Muhammad’s uncle."— Presentation transcript:
EARLY BEGINNINGS A prophet named Muhammad was born in 570 A.D. He was orphaned at age 6 and raised by an uncle and grandfather. Muhammad’s uncle was a trader and Muhammad went with him on his travels. Muhammad grew to dislike the traditional worship of the tribes people. Muhammad met Jews and Christians who worshipped one God and he grew to respect them and their beliefs.
Who is followed? At age 40 Muhammad was meditating on Mt Hira near Mecca(present day Saudi Arabia). Muhammad heard a voice say, “ You are the Messenger of God.” Muhammad believed that God spoke to him through the angel Gabriel. He then began preaching that there is only one God, Allah(Arabic word for God), and all other gods must be rejected.
MEDINA: CITY OF THE PROPHET Some people in Mecca did not like Muhammad speaking against the long held traditions. They threatened to kill Muhammad. In 622 AD Muhammad moved north to Medina with his followers. This date marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. In Medina Muhammad laid the foundation of the Islamic faith. Islam means “peace through the submission to the will of God”. A Muslim is one who believes in Islam.
RETURN TO MECCA In 630 AD Muhammad returned to Mecca. He had 10,000 followers with him. He was able to capture Mecca without much resistance. Mecca(in present day Saudi Arabia) became the center of the Muslim world.
THE KA’ABA It is a holy shrine believed to have been built by Abraham and his son Ishmael as an altar to God. It is located in the center of Mecca. Upon his return, Muhammad reclaimed the shrine. He cleaned it and rededicated it to Allah. It is the center of Islam to this day. It is the place of the annual pilgrimage and direction of prayer for Muslims from all corners of the globe.
MUHAMMAD’S DEATH In 632 AD Muhammad lead a pilgrimage to Mecca. He gave his final speech here. He urged kindness and respect towards others. Muhammad died shortly after this speech. He is buried in Medina.
SPREAD OF ISLAM Between 636 and 639 AD Muslims conquered and converted many countries around them. These included Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Mesopotamia. In less than 50 years the Muslim borders were from Spain to China. This was half of the known civilized world at that time.
Religious Book The Qur’an is the Muslim holy book It is a code that tells how to live your life so you can have a place in heaven. It is believed that Muhammad’s speeches were messages from God. Muhammad could not write; so at first the messages were given orally. After Muhammad’s death his followers wrote down his words in Arabic. This became the first written form of the Qur’an. It has 114 chapters called surahs.
Important Teachings There is no other God but Allah. Muhammad is his prophet. God is all powerful and all knowing. There is a Judgment Day where one’s soul will enter heaven or not depending on how you lived your life. Muhammad is the last in a line of prophets which include Abraham and Jesus.
Practices/Traditions Five Pillars These are the 5 duties all Muslims must perform to demonstrate their submission to the will of God. 1.Faith- Believe and say, “There is no other God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet”. 2.Prayer- Pray in Arabic five times a day, at specific times, and facing Mecca. 3. Alms-Give to the poor and needy. 4. Fasting- Fast during the month of Ramadan each year, avoiding all food and beverages between sunrise and sunset. 5. Hajj- If possible, make a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca once during a lifetime.
Place of Worship The place of worship for Muslims is called mosque in English and Masjid in Arabic. There is a weekly gathering of Muslims in the Mosque (or Masjid) at noon on Friday where they listen to the Friday Sermon and then they do the Friday praying. They can also practice their ritual praying anywhere: at home, office, open air, during flying, in ship, or at any dry clean place on the ground. They pray 5 times daily facing toward Mecca.
Symbol The crescent moon has become a symbol of Islam, but it’s meaning is debated. Islam has no sacred religious symbol as the cross in Christianity or David star in Judaism.
MUSLIM COMMUNITY SPLITS The Muslim community splits over how to choose a leader after Muhammad died There are two main Sects: Sunni’s- 90%-believe any Muslim who follows Muhammad's example may be ruler Shiites-10%- believe only a descendant of Muhammad and Ali ( Muhammad’s cousin and son- in-law) may be a ruler The division between the Sunni and the Shiites continues to cause conflict in the Muslim world today
FACTS Islam is the second largest world religion. It is the fastest growing religion. There are 1.2 billion Muslims today. There are 43 countries with Muslim-majority populations. Mainly in Northern Africa and West Asia. (Middle East)