Presentation on theme: "THE MUSLIM WORLD Intro to Islam and JCI Notes. Objectives Student will demonstrate knowledge of Islamic civilization from about 600 to 1000 C.E. by."— Presentation transcript:
THE MUSLIM WORLD Intro to Islam and JCI Notes
Objectives Student will demonstrate knowledge of Islamic civilization from about 600 to 1000 C.E. by Describing the origin, beliefs, traditions, customs, and spread of Islam Essential Questions Where did the Islamic religion originate? Where did it spread? What are the beliefs, traditions, and customs of Islam?
Origin of Islam Arabian Peninsula Crossroads of three continents Africa, Europe, Asia Major trade route Caravan trails Connected to silk road Surrounded by water Central and northern land desert Nomads called Bedouins Organized into clans Would influence Islamic culture Ideas of courage, loyalty to a family, and warrior skills Major cities Mecca Important stop on trade route Religious pilgrims worshipped at the Ka’aba Medina
Muhammad Life Born into a clan of a powerful Meccan family Orphaned at six Raised by grandfather and uncle, worked in caravans, became a merchant At 25 married Khadijah Revelations Often practiced prayer and meditation At 40, heard a voice in a cave outside of Mecca Voice of the angel Gabriel Beliefs One true God called Allah All others must be abandoned Convinced that he was the last of the prophets Movement Began to preach beliefs in 613 C.E. Persecuted for beliefs Fled to Medina Called the Hejira (Hijrah) Became political, religious, and military leader Returned to Mecca with followers in 630 C.E. Retook the city, destroyed the idols and had the call to prayer from the roof of the Ka’aba Meccans pledged their loyalty to Muhammad and Islam Death 632 C.E.
Beliefs and Practices Islam The religion of the Muslims, means “submission to the will of Allah” Main teaching is that there is only one God, Allah Muslim “one who has submitted” Holy book: Qur’an
5 Pillars Faith One god, Allah Prayer 5 times a day, towards Mecca May pray at a Mosque, an Islamic house of worship Alms giving Responsibility to support the less fortunate Religious tax Pilgrimage The Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime Fasting During holy month of Ramadan
Hajj the sacred pilgrimage to Mecca that must be performed once in each Muslims’ life. During this pilgrimage, pilgrims wear identical garments so that all stand as equals before God.
Sources of Authority Original source of authority is Allah Expressed is will through the Angel Gabriel Reveled to Muhammad as the Qur’an Revelations written in Arabic Sunna Muhammad’s example Best model for proper living Shari’a The book of laws in which the guidance of the Qur’an and Sunna was assembled in a practical form to help aid Muslims in applying the will of Allah to their daily lives. This system of law regulates the family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of Muslims. It brings all aspects of life together and unites all Muslims
JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY, AND ISLAM
Beliefs To Muslims, Allah is the same God that is worshipped in Christianity and Judaism Reveres Abraham, Moses, and other Jewish prophets Believes Jesus was a prophet Muhammad was the last great prophet
Other Important Points Believe the Torah and Bible contain partial revelations from God; however, the Qur’an is the final revelation Muslims refer to Christians and Jews as “people of the book” All three religions believe in heaven and hell and a day of judgment All people are equal before God Among Muslim religious practices was religious tolerance for Christians and Jews
ReligionJudaismChristianityIslam Belief in God One God JesusJesus is a disciple Jesus is the son of God and Messiah Jesus is a Prophet Holy BookTorahOld and New Testaments (Bible) Qur’an SalvationSalvation through just and moral life (Ten Commandments) Salvation by following teachings of Jesus (Ten Commandments) Salvation by following five pillars and living a just life