Presentation on theme: "Error Analysis Abdul Saeed. Definitions Error Corder (1967) states error as a breach of code. Norrish (1983) defines error as “a systematic deviation."— Presentation transcript:
Error Corder (1967) states error as a breach of code. Norrish (1983) defines error as “a systematic deviation when a learner has not learnt something and consistently ‘gets it wrong’.”
Mistake, “A mistake refers to a performance error that is either a random guess or a ‘slip’ in that it is a failure to utilize a known system correctly.”
Behaviourists’ view people learn language by responding an external stimuli and receiving proper reinforcement. Thus, a proper habit is formed and language learning takes place. Therefore, errors were deemed as a sign of failure on the part of the learners as well as teachers.
Mentalists’ view The conviction is that error is inevitable. It is an integral part of the learning process and developing competence. It should not be regarded as a sign of failure but as evidence that the student is working his way towards the correct rules.
Competence & Performance Competence is the abstract knowledge of language in the mind Performance is the realisation of the knowledge in concrete form.
Error Analysis Ellis (1985) stated in favour of EA claiming that these are the errors that let us know that how the language process is going on, what the stage of the learner is, what kind of difficulties are being faced and consequently how these problems can be solved.
Types of Errors 1. Interlingual and Intralingual Errors Interlingual errors are said to occur due to the interference of L1 into L2. In this case previous learned structures create problems for the learner to learn new language. Intralingual errors are those errors that occur due to the faulty or partial learning of the TL such as overgeneralization and oversimplification.
Overt and Covert Errors An error can be overt (the deviation is apparent in the surface form of the utterance) or covert errors (the deviation is only deviant when the learner’s meaning intention is taken into account) For example, ‘ I happy’ instead of ‘I am happy.’ Indicates error I am fine, thank you.
Causes and Sources of Errors 1Overgeneralisation Learners of second language sometimes apply previous learned rules on the target language without appropriate knowledge of their application. Thus, they commit error.
2.Ignorance of Rule Restriction In every language every lexical item has some rules and restrictions to be used with adjacent lexical items. For example, the pronoun ‘who’ has the restriction that it should be used with ‘living creatures’ not with ‘non-living’ things.
3. L1 Transfer According to Behaviourist learning theory, old habits get in the way of learning new habits. Thus, in L2 acquisition the patterns of the learner’s mother tongue that are different from those of the L2 get in the way of the learning L2
Negative Aspect Truscott opines that “grammar correction has no place in writing courses and should be abandoned” because it is not only “ineffective” but also “harmful” for the learners. (1) grammar correction can not work until or unless the learner himself is not interested to practice them and make them the part of his cognition.
(2) correction may be a source to demotivate the learner. Round circles, underlined words, different clues in red ink and long comments may leave very serious effects on the learner consequently ending in giving up the learning process
Positive Aspect Hammerly (1991) states that adult language learners make hypotheses about the target language. These hypotheses may be right or wrong. So, according to Hammerly (1991) feedback is necessary for these learners to test the authenticity of their hypotheses. Nunan and Lamb (1996) also speak in favour of error correction as it “can provide the learners with valuable information in the target language” (p, 68).