Presentation on theme: "Interlanguage Rod Ellies 2003 Chapter 3 Second Language Acquicition pp 31-35 Winda Putri S 2201410076."— Presentation transcript:
1 Interlanguage Rod Ellies 2003 Chapter 3 Second Language Acquicition pp 31-35 Winda Putri S
2 Behaviorist Learning Theory According to this theory, language learning is like any other kind of learning in that it involves habit formation. Habits are formed when learners respond to stimuli in the environment and subsequently have their response reinforced so that they are remembered. Thus, a habit is a stimulus-response connection.
3 It should be clear that behaviorist accounts of second language acquisition emphasize only what can be directly observed and ignore what goes on in the ‘black box’ of the learner’s mind. Behaviorism cannot adequately account for second language acquisition. In short, learning is not just a response to external stimuli.
4 A Mentalist Theory of Language Learning According to this theory:Only human being are capable of learning languageThe human mind is equipped with a faculty for learning language, referred to as a language acquisition deviceThis faculty is the primary determinant of language acquisitionInput is needed, but only to ‘trigger’ the operation of the language acquisition device
5 The Concept of Interlanguage The learner constructs a system of abstract linguisticThe learner’s grammar is permeableThe learner’s grammar is transitionalSome researchers have claimed that the systems learners construct contain variable rules
6 Learners employ various learning strategies to develop their inter language The learner’s grammar is likely to fossilizeThis concept of interlanguage offers a general account of how second language acquisition takes place.
7 The learner constructs a system of abstract linguistic This system of rules is viewed as a ‘mental grammar’ and is referred to as an inter language.
8 The learner’s grammar is permeable That is, the grammar is open to influence from the outside. It is also influenced from the inside. For example, the omission overgeneralization, and transfer errors which we considered in the previous chapter constitute evidence of internal processing.
9 The learner’s grammar is transitional Learners change their grammar from one time to another by adding rules, deleting rules, and reconstructing the whole system. This result in an interlanguage continuum. That is, learner construct a series of mental grammars or interlanguages as they gradually increase the complexity of their second language knowledge.
10 The systems learners construct contain variable rules The learner are likely to have competing rules at any one stage of development. However, other researcher argue that interlanguage system are homogeneous and that variability reflects the mistakes learners make when they try to use their knowledge to communicate.
11 Learners employ various learning strategies to develop their inter language The different kind of errors learners produce reflect different learning strategies. For example; omission errors suggest that learners are in someway simplifying the learning task by ignoring grammatical feature that they are not yet ready to process.
12 The learner’s grammar is likely to fossilize Selinker suggested that only about five per cent of learners go on to develop the same mental grammar as native speakers. The majority stop some way short. The prevalence of blacksliding is typical of fossilized learners.
13 Clearly, the concept of interlanguage needs to be elaborated to address such questions. The various theories that we shall shortly consider seek to do this.
14 A Computational ModelThe concept of interlanguage can be viewed as a metaphor of how second acquisition takes place. First, parts of it are attended to and taken into short-term memory. These are referred to as intake. Second, some of the intake is stored in long term memory as second language knowledge.
15 Input Intake L2 Knowledge Output As we shall shortly see, this basic model of L2 acquisition can be elaborated in a number of ways. For example, a component labelled ‘social context’ might be added to explain how the nature of the input varies from one setting to another.
16 We will now explore this computational model by examining a number of perspectives derived from different components of the model.