Presentation on theme: "Error Analysis (EA) LEC. 6. THE BEGINNING O Error analysis developed as a branch of applied linguistics in the 1960s, and set out to demonstrate that."— Presentation transcript:
THE BEGINNING O Error analysis developed as a branch of applied linguistics in the 1960s, and set out to demonstrate that many learner errors were not due to the learner’s mother tongue but reflected universal learning strategies. O Error analysis was therefore offered as an alternative to contrastive analysis (CA)
ERROR ANALYSIS The study & analysis of errors made by second language learners. Error analysis may be carried out in order to: 1. identify strategies which learners use in language learning 2. try to identify the causes of errors 3. obtain information on common difficulties in language learning, as an aid to teaching or in the preparation of teaching materials
Learners’ Performance 1950s & 1960s Late 1960s O Learners’ performance or errors were something trivial O Learners’ errors were attributed to L1 transfer O The role of CA became significant O Not all errors in L2 learning can be attributed to L1 transfer O Focus shifted from teaching to both learning & errors O This approach was called Error Analysis
The importance of EA O It is a techniques which aims at describing & explaining the systematic nature of deviations or errors. 1. Understanding the process underlying L2 learning 2. Figuring out statistically the troublesome linguistic areas on errors that learners encounter in learning
The importance of EA 3. Errors provide valuable feedback to both teachers & learners regarding learners’ strategies & progress 4. Errors provide researchers with insights into the nature of the L2 learning process itself
EA & CA Difference 1. EA deals with different types of errors; it is not restricted to errors caused by negative transfer (L1). (e.g. overgeneralization) 2. EA provides data on real problems 3. EA is not confronted with problems, such as accurate & explicit descriptions of languages, compatibility, adequate knowledge of the contrasted languages.
EA Methodology 1. Collection of errors 2. Identification of errors 3. Classification of error types 4. Statement of relative frequency of error types 5. Identification of the areas of difficulty in L2 6. Determination of the source of errors such as L1 transfer,, overgeneralization, inconsistencies in the spelling system of L2, etc. 7. Determination of the seriousness of the error in terms of communication & L2 8. Remedy by the teacher in the classroom by designing special drills, lessons, etc.
Classification of errors Attempts were made to develop classifications for different types of errors on the basis of the different processes were assumed to account for them. The basic distinction was drawn between interlingaul & interalingual errors.
Classification of errors Error classification Errors of competence Interlingual Transfer errors Intralingual Overgenralization errors Errors of performance False starts Repeats Corrections Slips of the tongue
EA Critics O Classification of errors O Stresses only what the learner cannot do at a given point of time O Difficulty of error identification O Avoidance strategy