Presentation on theme: "Learner mistakes Olga Boltneva Marina Belousova. The role of error Outcomes: distinguishing different types of mistakes: errors vs. slips understanding."— Presentation transcript:
Learner mistakes Olga Boltneva Marina Belousova
The role of error Outcomes: distinguishing different types of mistakes: errors vs. slips understanding factors in learner errors and reasons underlying different mistakes categorising types of mistakes discussing some of the issues involved in error correction
MAKING MISTAKES IS A NATURAL AND POSITIVE PART OF LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE
Did your teachers put a strong emphasis on correcting mistakes, or did they make you feel that it was acceptable to make mistakes? How did this make you feel – in either of these situations?
Slips vs. Errors Slips: Ss know the correct form, and make the slip due to carelessness, tiredness, distraction, inattentiveness, etc. Ss can usually correct these kinds of mistakes themselves Errors: Ss make a genuine mistake because dont actually know the correct form. The error is made due to factors such as trying to produce something which has not been fully learnt or learnt incorrectly, interference from L1, mistaken beliefs about the L2 rules. Ss are not usually able to self-correct errors NB! L1 – first language or mother tongue L2 – target language or a second or foreign language
Slips vs. Errors 1) Which one can be considered developmental, i.e. Ss make mistakes because their learning of the item is as yet incomplete? 2) Which type can Ss usually correct by themselves?
Why L2 learners make errors Factors in learner errors: Interference Developmental error Mislearning Fossilisation
The nature of typical mistakes Age groups Levels Background Learning styles ………..
Mistake categories Grammar Register Lexis Pronunciation Misunderstanding what they hear Spelling …….
Mistake categories Grammar – mixing up tenses Register- using formal language in informal context Lexis – confusion over words with similar meanings Pronunciation – confusing sounds of L1 & L2 Misunderstanding what they hear – caused by difficulties in distinguishing sounds, words, word boundaries in connected speech Spelling – writing words which have similar sounds but are spelt differently
Making mistakes is a natural part of language learning. Mistakes play an important role in indicating to teachers the stage learners are at Mistakes show needs for further teaching or study Mistakes help teachers to advise learners on what to do to improve
Why do we make mistakes ? Interlanguage – A stage in learning in which Ss mix elements of L1 structure, rules or pronunciation with L2 when they use L2. This is constantly changing as learners progress in L2 (By me a dog, I no come) Mother-tongue interference – Applying the rules of L1 to L2 (The news are good) Carelessness – Not paying attention (Ill be in a minute, I am just wearing my coat. (I am just putting my coat on) NB! This could be also due to tiredness or interlanguage
Why do we make mistakes? Translation - Converting from L1. This cause is very close to Mother-tongue interference category (e.g. using please when you give someone something) Over-generalisation/over-application – assuming a rule applies in all cases and over- using it (How many childs have you got?) Tiredness – Feeling tired (e.g. missing out words, using simpler forms). Ss can correct these when prompted Anxiety – Feeling nervous (e.g. disjointed sentences)
The dos and donts of error correction Do Tell Ss what they got right as well as what was wrong Praise is very important for motivation and developing self-confidence Dont Judge Ss by the errors they make Errors are inevitable and integral part of learning, so there are no point in deciding that learners are good or bad Dont Correct all mistakes during a fluency activity If you do this you will interrupt the flow of activity. Only correct them if the error causes miscommunication Do Encourage Ss to correct themselves This is a good habit – the more they can do this the less dependent on the teacher they will be and will help them to analyse and understand better Dont Discourage Ss from correcting each other Ss can learn a lot from each other. Ss are often able to explain things to each other in a way they understand better then when T explains
The dos and donts of error correction Dont Correct all learners in the same way Ss may be at different levels, have different learning styles and work at different paces. Ts need to consider when Ss would benefit from correction and when not Do Create a classroom atmosphere where Ss feel free to ask for help This helps self-confidence and encourages Ss to try things out for themselves Do See errors as useful Ts can learn about their Ss through the kinds of errors they make. Errors can provide feedback on the Ts work, and may help her to plan or adjust activities in future lessons Do Anticipate the errors that might occur when planning a lesson A good T tries to predict the types of errors a particular activity may throw up and then work out strategies for dealing with them. (e.g. pre-teaching the vocabulary)
Correction codes WW WO SP V P X ? T
Correction codes WWWrong word WOMistake in word order SPSpelling mistake VVerb used wrongly PWrong punctuation XExtra word ?Meaning unclear TWrong tense Something missing
Correction codes PROS feedback tailored to individual needs Ss assume responsibility CONS Ss training is required some Ss may find it not user-friendly
Reflection How important is accuracy? Is it always necessary to correct learners mistakes? What effect can correction have on motivation?