Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1989. Definition: A period of tension and hostility between the USA and the former Soviet Union from 1945-1989 No actual fighting."— Presentation transcript:
Definition: A period of tension and hostility between the USA and the former Soviet Union from 1945-1989 No actual fighting took place between U.S. & U.S.S.R.; it was a war of words, policies, & ideas.
Causes: Events that Set the Stage 1.Lack of cooperation during WWII 2.Yalta Conference-1945 3.Truman Doctrine and the Marshal Plan 4.Formation of opposing alliances: NATO and Warsaw Pact
Allies??? Lack of Support During WWII Although allies during WWII, the Soviet Union and the U.S.A. did not aide each other when asked. When the U.S.S.R. needed help on the Easter Front, the U.S.A. helped the British and French in the West & in Africa. When the U.S.A. needed help with Japan in the Pacific theater, the U.S.S.R. failed to join the effort until the very end.
The Yalta Conference 1945- The “big three” Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met to discuss divisions in post-war Germany. USSR takes E. Germany & E. Berlin USA, Britain, and France take W. Germany & W. Berlin
Important Post-WWII American Legislation The Truman Doctrine: President Truman’s plan to provide $ to any country that resists communism (Turkey & Greece). The Marshall Plan: American financial aid package designed to help Europe rebuild and recover after WWII ($12.5 billion).
New Alliances NATO (North Atlantic treaty Organization) Western Democratic nations including the U.S., Britain, & France Pledged to protect each other and promote democracy Warsaw Pact Eastern European Communist nations led by the U.S.S.R. Pledged to protect each other and promote Communism
The Iron Curtain Drops… Due to huge political and economic differences between these emerging “superpowers”, Europe becomes divided.
Berlin Blockade and Airlift (1948-49)- After the USSR set up a blockade to stop NATO troops from getting supplies to people in Berlin, the U.S. airlifts & dropped supplies by plane to avoid Soviet troops on the ground.
American Cold War Policies Containment - Stopping or limiting the spread of Communism The Domino Theory -Belief that if one country falls to communism, its neighboring countries will as well, like dominoes
From Policy to War… the Cold War heats up Korean War (1950- 1953) U.S. enters Korea to stop Communist North Korea from taking over South Korea War ends in a stalemate
Vietnam War (1956-1973) U.S. enters war to prevent Communist North Vietnam from taking over South Vietnam U.S. pulls out after years of failure and protests at home
The Berlin Wall 1961- To prevent citizens from leaving Communist East Berlin to the more successful Democratic West Berlin, a heavily guarded wall was built.
“Arms Race” As competition between the superpowers heated up in space, the fear of nuclear war became serious on Earth Both the U.S. and the U.S.S.R developed and build up ICBMs, missiles capable of carrying nuclear payloads thousands of miles Nuclear war now a possibility!
“The Space Race” Oct., 1957- Soviet Union launches first satellite (Sputnik 1) July, 1958- U.S. starts NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) April 1961- U.S.S.R. send first man into space (Yuri Gagarin) July, 1969- U.S. lands on Moon (Neil Armstrong)
Cuban Missile Crisis-1962 The Cold War reached of height of tension when the U.S.S.R. placed nuclear missiles in Cuba, only 90 miles from the Florida The Cubans led by Fidel Castro, and the Soviets led by Nikita Khrushchev had similar socialist governments
Disaster Avoided! Thanks to U.S. president Kennedy and Soviet leader Khrushchev, tensions finally began to ease on October 28 when Khrushchev announced that he would dismantle the installations and return the missiles to the Soviet Union, expressing his trust that the United States would not invade Cuba
Lets Cool It For Awhile!! After the Cuban Missile Crisis things cool off a bit. Brinkmanship was at its height, and dudes got scared.