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  What do you know? Gerunds   What do you know? Infinitives.

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Presentation on theme: "  What do you know? Gerunds   What do you know? Infinitives."— Presentation transcript:


2   What do you know? Gerunds

3   What do you know? Infinitives

4   Gerunds and infinitives are interesting because they look like verbs, but they act like nouns.  Form:  Gerunds: verb + ing ( swimming, talking, listening to )  Infinitives: to + verb ( to swim, to talk, to listen to ) Form & Function

5   Can be used to make general statements:  Studying English is fun!  It is fun to study English. (Use “it” as subject)  To study English is fun. (very formal, not often used) Both G & I

6   Function:  Act as subject of sentence:  Swimming in the ocean is thrilling.  Act as object of sentence:  Ben likes swimming in the ocean.  His mother doesn’t like his swimming in the ocean.  His mother doesn’t like Ben’s swimming in the ocean.  INFORMAL: His mother doesn’t like him swimming in the ocean. Gerund Function

7   Act as object of a preposition*:  She dreamed about going to Italy one day.  We are interested in learning about grammar.  *Notice that the preposition might follow a verb or it might follow an adjective.  Infinitives do not follow prepositions. Gerund Function

8   Playing soccer is good exercise.  The person who is playing soccer is my brother.  My brother is playing soccer with his team.  He loves playing soccer. Which of these are gerunds?

9   Follow special verbs:  Verb + Infinitive  I like to teach English.  Verb + Object + Infinitive  I will convince you to speak English in the classroom.  Verb + Infinitive OR Verb + Object + Infinitive  I want to study for the test.I want you to study for the test. Infinitive Function

10   Follow Adjectives:  The students were excited to take the test.  Follow Nouns:  It’s time to take a break.  Explain Purpose:  We study to pass our tests.  This is the same as: We study in order to pass our tests. Infinitive Function (cont)

11   Some verbs can be followed by either the G or the I and the meanings are the same:  We started studying grammar last week.  We started to study grammar last week.  There are a few SPECIAL VERBS that have a different meaning when they’re followed by a G or by an I.  I stopped smoking = I quit smoking.  I stopped to smoke = I quit what I was doing and smoked a cigarette. Tricky things:

12   “To” is tricky!  Sometimes it’s a preposition of direction:  I am going to Marcie’s office.  Sometimes it’s part of an infinitive:  I love to go to Marcie’s office.  Sometimes it’s part of a phrasal verb:  I am looking forward to going to Marcie’s office. More trickiness:

13   We are beginning to realize this class is hard!  We walked to the cinema, but the movie was canceled.  They can’t wait to see each other next week.  She was accustomed to studying every night.  He offered to pay for her dinner. Which are infinitives?

14   Memorize, memorize, memorize (p. A-2, A-3, A-4)  Practice, practice, practice! Your job:


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