2 What is a morpheme?What is the difference between free and bound morphemes?What is a root morpheme?What is the difference between inflectional and derivational morphemes?
3 What are the building blocks in the formation of complex words? MorphemesThe most elemental unit of a wordMorphologyStudy of the internal structure; rules of word formationbelievableunbelievabledesirableundesirablehappyunhappydressedundressed
4 Affixes Prefixes Prefixes are added to the beginning Suffixes Suffixes are added to the endForm a word with 2 suffixesForm a word with 1 Prefix and 2 Suffixes
5 Mini exercise Sister sister’s sisters happy blister For each of the words below, determine the number of morphemes it has.Sister sister’s sisters happy blisterunhappy the teacher carefully
6 Free morphemes vs. bound morphemes Free morphemes can be used aloneBound morphemes must be attached to other morphemesFree morpheme in a complex word:Deactivationde+act+iv+at+ionAct: 1 a : the doing of a thing (Merriam Webster Dictionary)
7 Free morphemes vs. bound morphemes Quick exerciseFor each morpheme below, determine whether it’s free or bound.Pre pro ive y worth withun ion re duct ed able
8 Lexical morphemes vs. grammatical morphemes Have a ‘real world’ meaningAlso called content morphemeGrammatical morphemeChange the form of a word but don’t have ‘real word’ meaningTest: find a synonym for the morphemeIf you can find one, it’s a lexical morphemeWhat is the difference between free &bound morphemes and lexical & grammatical morphemes?
9 Root morphemes vs. Affix morphemes What’s a root morpheme?Note: -roots tend to be free andlexical-affixes tend to be bound andgrammatical
10 Exceptions Quick exercise Analyze the word: “production” How many morphemes does it have?Which morpheme is the stem? Which ones are affixes?Is the stem free and lexical?WordMeaningcon+ductTo carry outin+ductTo place ceremoniouslyab+ductTo lead awayConclusion: ‘duct’ is a bound root morpheme
11 Root morphemes Quick exercise Identify the roots of the following wordskingdom interplanetary dimensional margins paintball children
12 Inflectional Affixes vs. Derivational Affixes What are inflectional affixes?Do not create new words when they attach to existing wordsThey change the form of that word to indicate grammatical meaning
13 Inflectional Affixes vs. Derivational Affixes Inflectional morphemeExamplePlural –s, -es (noun)Possessive –’s, s’ (noun)Comparative –er (adj.)Superlative –est (adj.)3rd person singular –s (verb)Past tense –ed (verb)Past participle –ed, -enPresent participle -ingPim likes to eat peach-esPim’s grades are greatPim is smart-er than BossPim is the quick-est of allPim like-s to studyPim studi-ed hard for the quizPim hasn’t fail-ed a test yet.Pim has been study-ing for 3 hours
14 Inflectional Affixes vs. Derivational Affixes Create new (or derive) new words in two waysSome derivational morphemes change the content meaning but not grammatical meaningOthers don’t significantly change the meaning but the grammatical meaning.Unlike inflectional affixes, derivational affixes can be both, prefixes or suffixes in English.
15 Derivational affixesFunctionMorphemeExample WordChange content meaningun-un+happyre-re+writeChange grammatical function (noun ⇒verb)-izetrauma(t)+izeChange grammatical function (noun ⇒adj.)-yhealth+yChange grammatical function (adj.⇒adverb)-lyquick+lyThe number of derivational affixes in English is far greater than inflectional affixes
16 Derivational affixes Quick exercise Each of the words below contains two morphemes, a root and a derivational affix. Decide if the derivational affix changes the meaning or class of the root.retake hopelessundress tensiondisembark cheerfulWhat is the general trend with regard to the behavior of derivational prefixes vs. suffixes? That is, how does each kind of affix derive new words?
17 Derivational affixes Quick exercise Each of the words below contains two morphemes, a root and a derivational affix. Decide if the derivational affix changes the meaning or class of the root.rewrite hopelessunclear creationunhappy helpfulWhat is the general trend with regard to the behavior of derivational prefixes vs. suffixes? That is, how does each kind of affix derive new words?
18 Overview of all discussed distinctions Morphemeslexical-bound rootsboundgrammaticalderivationalinflectional-eight suffixesprefixesex:-unsuffixesex: -nessfree
19 Word creation in English (Neologism) AffixingAffixing and derivation create new words in EnglishX number of affixes +Y number of words (stems)Example: ‘un-’Functional shiftWords changing word classExample: impact (noun and verb)Quick exercise:Transition reference proposition helphope
20 Word creation in English (Neologism) Coined wordsSpeakers continually create new words.Consider the word ‘dissing’ in the sentence:Are you dissing me?1. What does dissing mean?2. What part of speech does it belong to? (Defend your answer on a morphological basis)
21 Word creation in English (Neologism) AcronymsCommon acronyms that turned into words:Laser, radar, scuba, MUICWhere do they derive from?Light Amplification (by) Stimulated Emission (of) RadiationRAdio Detecting And Ranging
22 Word creation in English (Neologism) BorrowingSpeakers of English aggressively borrow from other languagesKindergarten (German)Croissant (French)Sushi (Japanese)Macho (???)List 3 words in Thai that are borrowed from English?
23 Word creation in English (Neologism) BlendingMixing wordsQuick exercise: from what words are the following blends mixed?Motel Infomercial EdutainmentNetiquette