Presentation on theme: "Brief introduction to morphology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Brief introduction to morphology Morphology is the study of word structure and word formation processes in language.
2 TerminologyA morpheme is the smallest meaning-bearing unit in a language.Free morphemes are independent words.Bound morphemes, called affixes, cannot stand on their own.Types of affixes:prefix attaches at front of wordsuffix attaches at end of wordcircumfix attaches around wordinfix attaches inside word
3 References for examples Examples are either from our textbook or from Linguistics, second edition, by Akmajian, Demers and Harnish, MIT press.
4 Morphological processes There are different kinds of morphological processes, in particular:inflectional morphologyderivational morphology
5 English inflectional morphology nounsplural marker: -s (dog + s = dogs)possessive marker: -’s (dog + ’s = dog’s)verbs3rd person present singular: -s (walk + s = walks)past tense: -ed (walk + ed = walked)progressive: -ing (walk + ing = walking)past participle: -en or -ed (eat + en = eaten)adjectivescomparative: -er (fast + er = faster)superlative: -est (fast + est = fastest)
6 Properties of (English) inflectional morphology Inflectional morphology does not change grammatical categoryIn English, all inflectional affixes are suffixes (they attach to the end of a word)Inflectional affixes are attached after any derivational affixes:modern + ize + s = modernizes (OK)modern + s + ize (NOT OK)modern + ize + s + able (NOT OK)Inflectional morphology carries a regular meaning transformation.
7 English derivational morphology Derivational morphology can (but need not) change grammatical category.un + do = undo (both verbs)program + able = programmable (verb, adjective)Derivational morphology does not always induce a regular/predictable meaning change: there is “drift”fix + able = fixable (able to be fixed)read + able = readable (more than just “able to be read”)wash + able = washable (more than just “able to be washed”)
8 Concatenative vs. nonconcatenative morphology Concatenative morphology combines morphemes by concatentation (prefixes and suffixes demonstrate this)Non-concatentative morphology combines in a non-concatenative mannercircumfixes and infixestemplatic morphology
10 Infix example Bontoc Igorot (Philippine language) English kayu (“wood”)-in- (“product of a completed action)kayu + -in- kinayu (“gathered wood”)Englishabso-bloody-lutely (emphasis)
11 Templatic morphology Semitic languages (Arabic, Hebrew) stem (root), e.g. ktb (write)consonant-vowel (CV) template: CVCCVC (causative)vocalization: ui (perfect passive)Combination: consonants in stem map onto Cs in template, vowels in vocalization map onto Vs to yield surface form: kuttib (“will have been written”)
13 Parsing refers to the recovery of structure from analysis of input often refers to the processing of sentencescan also refer to the processing of wordsStemming refers to the recovery of a word stem given a surface form of the word:uncharacteristically = un + character + istic + ally
14 Lexicons One approach: list all words difficult in English because some morphology is productive (applies to new words of language too):(table adapted from page 62 of text)STEMwalkmergetrymapgoogletext-swalksmergestriesmapsgooglestexts-ingwalkingmergingtryingmappinggooglingtexting-edwalkedmergedtriedmappedgoogledtexted (?)
15 Issues Not only do some affixes attach to large numbers of stems, they also attach to new words in the languagespam, spams, spamming, spammed, spammerIdea: encode morphological rules to generate all forms of words from a minimal set of word stems.
16 Applicationslexiconsstemminggenerating correct surface word forms