Presentation on theme: "The study of the structure of words. Words are an integral part of language ◦ Vocabulary is a dynamic system How many words do we know? ◦ Infinite."— Presentation transcript:
Words are an integral part of language ◦ Vocabulary is a dynamic system How many words do we know? ◦ Infinite sentences with finite vocabulary Children who enter school: about 13,000 High school graduate: 60,000 Literate adult: approx. 120,000 List of words: Lexicon Word: Lexeme
In reading (except some languages like Thai) words are separated by spaces. In spoken language spaces rarely exist. ◦ Word boundaries through listening skills are an illusion People who master a language recognize word boundaries not by speech pauses but by ‘elements’ of the words. thecatsatonthesofa
Phonetic/phonological information ◦ Every word has its pronunciation ◦ Example: tree Lexical structure information Example: tree vs. trees Trees is made up of two parts: tree + (-s)
What are words? What are the basic building blocks in the formation of complex words? How are more complex words built up from simpler words? How is the meaning of a complex word related to the meaning of its parts?
Morphemes ◦ The most elemental unit of a word Morphology ◦ Study of the internal structure; rules of word formation believableunbelievable desirableundesirable happyunhappy dressedundressed
Prefixes are added to the beginning Suffixes are added to the end One morphemeact Two morphemesact + ive Three morphemesact + ive+ate Four morphemesde + act+ ive+ate More than four: Anti+dis+establish+ment+ari+an+ism
For each of the words below, determine the number of morphemes it has. Then answer the question below. Friendfriendsfriend’sluckysilly Unluckythecigarcarefully Does the number of morphemes always equal the number of syllables?
Affixes represent a wide range of meanings Free morphemes vs. bound morphemes ◦ Free morphemes can be used alone ◦ Bound morphemes must be attached to other morphemes Quick exercise For each morphemes below, determine whether it’s free or bound. Actdeiveyworthwith unnessrejectedate
Lexical morphemes vs. grammatical morphemes Lexical morpheme ◦ Have a ‘real world’ meaning ◦ Also called content morpheme Grammatical morpheme ◦ Change the form of a word but don’t have ‘real word’ meaning Test: find a synonym for the morpheme ◦ If you can find one, it’s a lexical morpheme
Quick exercise For each morphemes below, determine whether it’s lexical or grammatical. Actdeiveyworthwith unnessrejectedate Conclusion: free morphemes are (almost always) lexical bound morphemes are (almost always) grammatical
Root morphemes similar to the roots of a tree Root morphemes are the core of a tree Affixes are similar to the branches of a tree ◦ They are added to the stem/root to create multi/poly-morphemic words Note: -roots tend to be free and lexical -affixes tend to be bound and grammatical ◦ Exception: “rejected”
Quick exercise Analyze the word: “rejected” How many morphemes does it have? Which morpheme is the root? Which ones are affixes? Is the root free and lexical? WordMeaning re+jectTo send back in+jectTo send in pro+jectTo send forward Conclusion: ‘ject’ is a bound root morpheme
Quick exercise In each of the words below, determine which morpheme is the root morpheme and decide whether that root is free or bound. If the root is bound, provide two additional words with the same bound root. Reduceunhappily Predictionproactively Mindfulreverted
Inflectional affixes ◦ Do not create new words when they attach to existing words ◦ They change the form of that word to indicate grammatical meaning ◦ Example: the past tense suffix ‘–ed’ attaches to verbs to change the tense but doesn’t create a new word Number of inflectional affixes is very limited.
Inflectional morphemeExample Plural –s, -es (noun) Possessive –’s, s’ (noun) Comparative –er (adj.) Superlative –est (adj.) 3 rd person singular –s (verb) Past tense –ed (verb) Past participle –ed, -en Present participle -ing Pim likes to eat peach-es Pim’s grades are great Pim is smart-er than Boss Pim is the quick-est of all Pim like-s to study Pim studi-ed hard for the quiz Pim hasn’t fail-ed a test yet. Pim has been study-ing for 3 hours
Derivational Affixes ◦ Create new (or derive) new words in two ways ◦ Some derivational morphemes change the content meaning but not grammatical meaning ◦ Others don’t significantly change the meaning but the grammatical meaning. Unlike inflectional affixes, derivational affixes can be both, prefixes or suffixes in English.
FunctionMorphemeExample Word Change content meaningun-un+happy Change content meaningre-re+write Change grammatical function (noun ⇒verb)-izetrauma(t)+ize Change grammatical function (noun ⇒adj.)-yhealth+y Change grammatical function (adj.⇒adverb)-lyquick+ly The number of derivational affixes in English is far greater than inflectional affixes
Quick exercise Each of the words below contains two morphemes, a root and a derivational affix. Decide if the derivational affix changes the meaning or class of the root. rewritehopeless unclearcreation unhappyhelpful What is the general trend with regard to the behavior of derivational prefixes vs. suffixes? That is, how does each kind of affix derive new words?