Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World
~The Explorer~ Christopher Columbus- 1492 Christopher Columbus- 1492 –Goal to find an alternate route to the Spice Islands… –Outcome he instead found the Americas traveled in and out of the Caribbean Islands writing down what he witnessed about the native population. –Purpose/Significance of “Columbus Letter” written on board the Caravel, off the Canary Isles, on the 15th of February, 1493. –Read “Columbus Letter” and answer questions. What is the purpose of the letter and who is he writing it to? –Writing to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella –Purpose- inform them on his progress in the new world what he has found Why is this letter significant? –Letter opens up the new world to Spanish conquest and domination.
Spanish soldiers who came to the New World to help conquer and settle the Americas for Spain. Some of their methods were harsh and brutal especially to the Native American population. With every Spanish explorer were conquistadors and members of the Catholic Church to convert Native Americans.
Hernan Cortez The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Montezuma II vs.vs.
~The Conquistadors~ Hernan Cortez-1519 Hernan Cortez-1519 Purpose- Purpose- –conquer new lands for the Spanish Crown. –Traveled from Cuba into Mexico—Aztec Empire –arranged alliances to defeat the Aztec in Tenonchtitlán –Montezuma is defeated, Tenochtitlan becomes Mexico City in 1521.
Francisco Pizarro The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas Atahualpa vs.
~The Conquistadors~ Francisco Pizarro-1532 Francisco Pizarro-1532 Purpose- Purpose- –conquer new lands for the Spanish Crown. –Peru—Inca Empire (South America) –Held Atahualpa ransom, and killed him. –Took over the Incan Empire
Spanish Success in the Americas Spanish Conquer Native Americans: 4 Key Ingredients for Success 1. Disease- 1. Disease- brought by Europeans weakened Native populations. Natives never had exposure to these diseases. 2. Superior Weapons- 2. Superior Weapons- Spanish had armor which protected them from arrows and the Spanish had guns and Canons 3. Disunity- 3. Disunity- Spanish were able to use disunity between natives to form alliances which would help take down large empires. 4. Gods?- 4. Gods?-Many natives saw the emergence of the Spanish in the New World as their world ending
COLONIAL PERIOD COLONIZATION IS A NATURAL OUTGROWTH OF EXPLORATION MERCANTILISM - COLONIES EXIST TO BENEFIT THE MOTHER COUNTRY 3 MAJOR COUNTRIES TOOK THE LEAD IN COLONIZING THE NEW WORLD SPAIN FRANCE ENGLAND
SPAIN IN AMERICA SPANISH OBJECTIVES IN THE NEW WORLD o WEALTH o POWER & GLORY o EXPAND BOUNDARIES o SPREAD RELIGION COLONIES LOCATED IN SOUTH AMERICA, CENTRAL AMERICA & SOUTHERN NORTH AMERICA
Spanish empire by the 1600’s consisted of the part of North America Central America Caribbean Islands Much of South America.
~The Colonial Class System~ Peninsulares Spanish ancestory Creoles Spanish and European mixture. Mestizos Spanish and Indian mixture Mulattos Spanish and Black mixture Native Indians Black Slaves
1. Spanish practice of securing an adequate and cheap labor supply = FEUDALISM “granted” to deserving subjects of the King 2. Conquistador controlled Indian populations Required Indians to pay tribute from their lands Indians often rendered personal services as well. 3. In return the conquistador was obligated to protect his wards instruct them in the Christian faith defend their right to use the to live off the land 4. Encomienda system eventually decimated Indian population. 5. The King prevented the encomienda with the New Laws (1542) supported by de Las Casas, the system gradually died out.