Presentation on theme: "European Age of Discovery Impact"— Presentation transcript:
1 European Age of Discovery Impact Expansion into Americas, Africa, and AsiaMigration, Settlement patterns, cultural diffusion and social classes in colonized areasColumbian ExchangeTriangular tradeImpact of precious metal exports from the Americas on Europe.The Age of Exploration into the new world exposed Europe to different parts of the world. The Europeans’ contact with these areas would have a dramatic effect on local economies and governments. As they began to discover more land, the Europeans established colonies, an overseas territory controlled by a parent country. The colonies were used only to benefit the parent country. Most were used as areas where raw materials could be found, or agricultural products could be grown. This occurred not only in the Americas but in Asia as well. India, the Indies or the Islands in SE Asia, and China were all colonized in some parts by Europeans.
2 Impact of Africa and Asia Europeans trading posts along the coastTrade in slaves, gold, and other resourcesAsiaColonization by small groups of merchants in India, the Indies, and ChinaInfluence of trading companies (Portuguese, Dutch, and British).As the desire to make money inspired most exploration, it was merchants who helped establish colonies throughout the world.Joint-Stock Companies, which allowed people to invest in exploration, were a stable source of support for exploration. They played a crucial role in helping Europe establish colonies throughout the world. The Portuguese trading posts along the coast of Africa would start the slave trade in Africa which would lead to the importation of Africans as slave labor from Africa to the Americas to work in the plantation system in the Caribbean, Brazil, and North America. Portuguese companies had led exploration, however other joint stock companies such as the Dutch East India Company, The British East India Company, The Virginia Company of London would later establish colonies in different parts of the world.
3 Impacts of the Americas Expansion of overseas territorial claims and European emigration to North and South AmericaDemise of Aztec and Inca EmpiresLegacy of a rigid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin AmericaForced migration of Africans who had been enslavedColonies imitation of the culture and social patterns of their parent countriesThe Columbian Exchange was named after Christopher Columbus because he is credited for start the exchange of goods, ideas and agriculture products between the OLD WOLRD and NEW WORLD. As they began to discover more land, the Europeans established colonies, an overseas territory controlled by a parent country. As colonies were established many Europeans moved to the colonies in an attempt to seek their fortunes. These Europeans would make the colonies their permanent homes and these Europeans would imitate that culture and social patterns of their parent countries. Culture examples would be religions such as Protestantism, Catholicism, and Anglicanism. Also art and architecture in the Americas have similar appearances to their counterparts in Europe In addition the slaves that were brought from Africa would not return either. They and the future generations worked as slaves in the colonies and would eventually make these areas their homeland when slavery was finally banned around the 1800s. Most were used as areas where raw materials could be found, or agricultural products could be grown.
4 Impacts on the Americas Demise of Aztec and Inca Empires due to conquest and diseases from the Old World.Cortez – Conquered the Aztec Civilization in what is today MexicoPizarro – Conquered the Incan Civilization in what is today Peru and Chile in the Andes MountainsThe Spanish also introduced a number of diseases that were unknown in the Americas. The natives had no immunity to the germs the Spanish carried. Epidemics of diseases took a heavy toll on the Native population. In less than 100 years European Diseases such as smallpox killed up to 90% of the population in some areas of the New World. More than anything, this allowed the Europeans to conquer the New World.
5 Latin America: Legacy of a rigid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin America Peninsulares-white, born in SpainCreoles- white, born in colonyMestizos- white + native IndianMulattos- white + AfricanA hierarchical social order emerged with the Indians and slaves at the bottom, the mestizos and mulattos in the middle and the Europeans and their descendants at the top. Royal protection of the Indian was generally ineffective. Because Spaniards and creoles looked down on manual labor, they developed several labor systems to force Indians to work for Spanish landowners. The plantation system had a drastic effect on the people in the Americas. The plantation system set up a defined role for different types of labor. Particularly in Latin America, this left a legacy of a rigid class system that continued even after slavery disappeared. The intermarriage of Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans led to a type of caste system based on race in Latin America. Under this caste system, those of European (Spanish) descent ranked higher than those of native or African descent. Also the people in Latin America came to accept in many cases strong dictatorial rule, rather than to seek personal freedoms. There are still countries with dictatorial rule today such as Cuba, and Venezuela.Native IndiansAfrican slaves
6 ReviewWhat European country was responsible for conquering the Aztecs and Incas?Answer: SpainWhat European religion would probably have been spread the most in Latin America?Answer: Roman CatholicThe rigid class system in Latin America setup by the Spanish lead to today a legacy of what?Answer: Dictatorial RuleWhat European country was responsible for conquering the Aztecs and Incas? Yes your right! The answer is - SpainWhat European religion would probably have been spread the most in Latin America? Job well done! The answer is - Roman Catholic because Spain controlled most of Central and South America and their colony intimated the mother countries culture of Catholicism.The rigid class system in Latin America setup by the Spanish lead to today a legacy of what? Great Job! The answer is - Dictatorial Rule
7 Columbian ExchangeWestern Hemisphere agricultural products, such as corn, potatoes, and tobacco, changed European lifestyles.European horses and cattle changed the lifestyles of American Indians.European diseases, such as smallpox, killed many American IndiansThe Columbian Exchange was named after Christopher Columbus because he is accredited for start the exchange of goods, ideas and agriculture products between the OLD WOLRD and NEW WORLD. The Agricultural products that moved from one continent to the other changed lifestyles on both sides of the Atlantic. The Europeans introduced to the OLD WORLD multiple agricultural products that they had never seen before such as potatoes, corn, tomatoes, tobacco, and kidney beans. Potatoes and corn became important crops in Europe as they could provide much more calories and nutrition than the traditional European crops of wheat and rye. More people could be easily fed because of the potato. Potatoes will become an essential part of European diets in the next few centuries. Tobacco would later become a cash crop for Europe. In the NEW WORLD the Native Americans were introduced to a number of agricultural products. These included wheat, multiple fruits, sugar cane, and coffee. They were also introduced to some animals they had never seen before. Horses and Cattle were the two things that the Americans were introduced to, that would have the biggest impact on changing their lives as they were great work animals.
8 Impact of the Columbian Exchange Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the use of African slavesSlavery was based on raceEuropean plantation system in the Caribbean and the Americas destroyed indigenous economics and damaged the environment.The large plantations also required a large amount of labor. The diseases had devastated the native population, so there was no large labor force to work the fields. The Europeans turned to African Slaves to make up their workforce. Slavery was based on race, as many Europeans thought Africans would be best suited for the hot weather and their racist ideas that Africans were inferior to the whites. Official laws were passed declaring that only Africans could be held as slaves. The Europeans realized that the new world was a great place to farm. They began starting large plantations to grow as many crops as possible. These plantations had negative effects on the area. The local economies based around small farms were destroyed by the large scale plantations. In time, the environment was badly damaged by these large farms, as there was considerable deforestation.
9 Triangular TradeTrade routes that linked Europe, Africa, and Americas.Slaves, sugar, rum and manufactured goods were trade between the continents.The Triangular Trade route had three legs. First, ships left Europe loaded with manufactured goods. Examples of the manufactured goods are as follows; guns, swords, clothes, and rum, and they were bound for West Africa. In West Africa, the manufactured goods would be traded to local rulers in Africa who would trade other Africans that they had enslaved. In addition, the Europeans would capture slaves from the interior of Africa when possible. The enslaved Africans would be taken to plantations in North and South America where they would be sold. This long journey for the slaves was known as the Middle Passage. The slave traders used the money from the slaves they sold to buy sugar, coffee, or tobacco, which they could bring back to Europe. During the Middle Passage, slaves stayed on crowded ships for several weeks at a time. As the European presence in Africa grew, so did the number of slaves. The Slave trade continued for nearly 350 years, resulting in the deaths of millions of Africans. In the Caribbean, slaves greatly outnumbered the free population and uprisings were common. However, only one slave revolt would be totally successful. In 1804 slaves, in a French controlled island were able to establish the Independent country of Haiti.
10 Impact of Precious Metals Gold and silver exported to Europe and AsiaImpact on indigenous empires of the AmericasImpact on Spain and International trade.While much money was made off of the sugar plantations in the Caribbean, Europeans also discovered that gold and silver were present in the New World. They began gold and silver mines. The Europeans forced natives or slaves to work these mines. The Spanish quest for gold led them to destroy both the Aztec and Incan Empires, as both had huge reserves of gold. The gold that they exported back to Europe made Spain one of the richest countries in the world. The ships that they used to export the gold were known as Spain’s Treasure Fleet. They faced frequent raids from pirates and privateers. International wealth was based on how much gold reserves or “Bullion” a country had. However Spain imported so much gold from the Americas which caused inflation in Spain and other areas of Europe that the value drastically decreased, and it is believed that it actually ruined Spain’s economy in the long run. Inflation is just one factor that led to the decline of the Spanish Empire and its influences on Europe.
11 ReviewWhich products went FROM THE NEW WORLD to the old world due to the Columbian Exchange?Answer: Corn, tobacco, potatoes, and goldWhich products went FROM THE OLD WORLD to the New World due to the Columbian exchange?Answer: Horses, Cattle, Christianity and Diseases such as SmallpoxWhy couldn’t Europeans use Native Americans as a source for labor on plantations?Answer: Disease such as SmallpoxWhich products went FROM THE NEW WORLD to the old world due to the Columbian Exchange? Great Job! The answer is - Corn, tobacco, potatoes, and goldWhich products went FROM THE OLD WORLD to the New World due to the Columbian exchange? Excellent Job! The answer is - Horses, Cattle, Christianity and Diseases such as SmallpoxWhy couldn’t Europeans use Native Americans as a source for labor on plantations? Yes your right! The answer is – Disease such as smallpox because indigenous populations were decimated by diseases that Europeans carried with them from the Old World.