Presentation on theme: "Kris Bakkum Kari Svihovec BrainU 202 2012. True or False? 1. Meningitis is caused by either a virus or a form of bacteria. 2. Viral meningitis causes."— Presentation transcript:
True or False? 1. Meningitis is caused by either a virus or a form of bacteria. 2. Viral meningitis causes more fatalities than bacterial meningitis. 3. Meningitis is an inflammation of the spinal cord. 4. Symptoms of meningitis may include fever, chills, headache, and a stiff neck. 5. There are treatments available for all causes of meningitis.
Definition of Meningitis An inflammation of the meninges (protective membranes surrounding the central nervous system)
Causes of Meningitis Fungal MeningitisParasitic Meningitis Caused by Cryptococcus types of fungus Affects people with immune deficiencies, such as AIDS, leukemia… Generally mild or less severe when compared to other forms of meningitis Caused by N. fowerli Parasite is typically found in warm, freshwater sources Very rare Usually fatal Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Causes of Meningitis Non-Infectious MeningitisViral Meningitis Caused by trauma to the nervous system Trauma may result from Drug use Cancers Head injury Brain surgery Severity depends upon underlying health condition Caused by viruses Enteroviruses Small viruses made of RNA + protein Mumps Herpes Generally mild or less severe when compared to other forms of meningitis
Causes of Meningitis Bacterial Meningitis Caused by Haemophilus, Streptococcus, or and Listeria types of bacteria The type of bacteria causing the infection is dependant upon the age of the individual Usually severe Fatalities occur among 20-25% of all individuals affected sitemaker.umich.edu
Diagnosis of Meningitis Testing of Blood Crossing of BB barrier Cerebrospinal Fluid PCR for Viral Meningitis Diagnosis of exclusion for non-infectious forms
Risk Factors of Meningitis Age Infants or young are at a higher risk Setting Spreads quickly among large groups of people (colleges, military, religious pilgrimages) Medical conditions that weaken immune system Travel to Sub-Saharan Africa
Symptoms of Meningitis Fever Chills Nausea Vomiting Photophobia Severe headache Stiff neck Agitation Confusion Rapid breathing Bulging fontanelles in children Decreased consciousness Temporary or permanent hearing loss Sepsis resulting in organ failure or loss of limbs Symptoms may last 2-4 weeks
Neural effects of Meningitis Inflammation of membranes surrounding brain and spinal cord Compression of brain decreases synaptic activity Hearing or speech loss Blindness Permanent brain and nerve damage Behavioral changes Reduced cognitive abilities Loss of muscle control Seizures Memory loss Increased pressure on brain forces it through foramen magnum, resulting in an increased pressure placed upon brainstem Breathing stops Death
Long-Term Effects of Meningitis Patients may require Long-term care Extensive therapy Support in educational settings
Treatment of Meningitis Fungal Long course of IV Anti-fungal medication Parasitic Several drugs are successful in laboratory settings only Almost always fatal to infected individuals Non-infectious Treat the symptoms Treat the underlying condition (cancer) Viral Time (usually 7-10 days) Treatment of symptoms Bacterial Appropriate antibiotics based upon type of bacterial infection People in contact with infected individuals are often treated as well
Prevention of Meningitis Standard Immunizations Standard hygiene practices Avoid contact with infected individuals
Focuses of Current Meningitis Research Control of immune response due to the infection Clinical Vaccine development Optimizing treatment Timing of treatment Strategy of drug administration Cost-effective treatment options for areas with limited resources Recovery “Neuroprotective” compounds that can block accumulating damage after meningal inflammation
True or False 1. Meningitis is caused by either a virus or a form of bacteria. 2. Viral meningitis causes more fatalities than bacterial meningitis. 3. Meningitis is an inflammation of the spinal cord. 4. Symptoms of meningitis may include fever, chills, headache, and a stiff neck. 5. There are treatments available for all causes of meningitis.
Resources Centers for Disease Control and Protection Hearing Research Trust, UK Meningitis Research Foundation National Meningitis Association David R. Boulware, M.D., MPH, DTM&H