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Meningitis by Hisinta Whorton March 23, 2010. History & Epidemiology Epidemic meningitis is a relatively recent phenomenon The first recorded major outbreak.

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Presentation on theme: "Meningitis by Hisinta Whorton March 23, 2010. History & Epidemiology Epidemic meningitis is a relatively recent phenomenon The first recorded major outbreak."— Presentation transcript:

1 Meningitis by Hisinta Whorton March 23, 2010

2 History & Epidemiology Epidemic meningitis is a relatively recent phenomenon The first recorded major outbreak occurred in Geneva in 1805 Several other epidemics in Europe and the United States were described shortly afterward, and the first report of an epidemic in Africa appeared in 1840

3 What is Meningitis? Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord People sometimes refer to it as spinal meningitis. Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Knowing whether meningitis is caused by a virus or bacterium is important because the severity of illness and the treatment differ depending on the cause Viral meningitis is generally less severe and clears up without specific treatment. But bacterial meningitis can be quite severe and may result in brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disabilities Fungal meningitis can be caused due to exposure to environments likely to contain fungal elements

4 Types of Meningitis Aseptic (Fungi, Mycobacteria,Virus,Cancer) Cryptococcal (fungus:Cryptococcus neoformans) Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes) Haemophilus influenza (Haemophilus influenzae) Carcinomatous (meningitis due to cancer) Meningococcal (Neisseria meningitidis) Pneumococcal (Streptococcus pneumoniae ) Staphylococcal (Staphylococcus aureus) Syphilitic aseptic (Treponema pallidum) Tuberculous (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

5 Streptococcus pneumoniae Neisseria meningitidis

6 Signs & Symptoms High fever Headache, and stiff neck. Nausea Vomiting Discomfort looking into bright lights Confusion Sleepiness Appear to be slow Inactive Irritable Feeding poorly Seizures

7 Diagnosis The diagnosis is usually made by growing bacteria from a sample of spinal fluid The spinal fluid is obtained by performing a spinal tap, in which a needle is inserted into an area in the lower back where fluid in the spinal canal can be collected Identification of the type of bacteria responsible is important for selection of correct antibiotics

8 Treatment & Prevention Acute bacterial meningitis is a true medical emergency, and requires immediate treatment in a hospital Viral meningitis is milder and occurs more often than bacterial meningitis Haemophilus vaccine (HiB vaccine) in children will help prevent one type of meningitis The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is now a routine childhood immunization Household members and others in close contact with people who have meningococcal meningitis should receive preventive antibiotics to avoid becoming infected themselves

9 Treatment & Prevention cont’d Wash your hands thoroughly and often Clean contaminated surfaces (e.g. doorknobs, TV remote control) Cover your cough Avoid kissing or sharing a drinking glass, eating utensil, lipstick, or other such items with sick people or with others when you are sick Avoid bites from mosquitoes and other insects

10 Sources https://health.google.com/health/ref/Meningiti s#Treatment https://health.google.com/health/ref/Meningiti s#Treatment


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