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Presentation on theme: "Meningitis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Meningitis

2 Video #1 Video #2 vaccine/story?id=

3 What are the meninges? The meninges are membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. The meninges consist of three layers of protective tissue Dura mater- most superior of meningeal layers Arachnoid- middle layer of the meninges Pia mater- inner most layer of the meninges Function Protects Cranial Nerves and Spinal Cord Its name means "hard mother" in Latin and it is tough and inflexible. This tissue forms several structures that separate the cranial cavity into compartments and protect the brain from displacement.

4 What is meningitis? Meningitis is a disease caused by the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord known as the meninges The inflammation is usually caused by an infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

5 How does meningitis develop?
Meningitis may develop in response to a number of causes, usually viruses or bacteria meningitis can also be caused by physical injury, cancer or certain drugs The five main types of meningitis are: Bacterial meningitis, Viral meningitis, Parasitic meningitis, Fungal meningitis, Non-infectious meningitis The severity of illness and the treatment for meningitis differ depending on the cause Thus, it is important to know the specific cause of meningitis.

6 Viral Meningitis Is the most common type of meningitis
Often less severe than bacterial meningitis Most people (usually) get better on their own Infants younger than 1 month and those with suppressed immune systems  more severe illness

7 Viral meningitis Causes
Non-polio enteroviruses are most common cause of viral meningitis in the U.S. Common in summer to fall Only small number of peo0ple with an enterovirus develops meningitis Other Viruses that can cause meningitis are: Mumps, Measles, Influenza, West Nile Virus Common in summer to fall when these viruses spread most often

8 Viral Meningitis Risk Factors
Any age group, some are at higher risk including: Children younger than 5 yrs. of age People with suppressed immune systems caused by other disease, medications, and recent organ or bone marrow transplantations Transmission Close contact with person who has viral meningitis may infect you with the virus that made person sick, but low chances of you developing meningitis

9 Viral meningitis Symptoms In Infants: Fever, Irritability, poor eating
In Adults: Fever, Headache, Stiff neck, Sensitivity to bright light Diagnosis Naso-oropharyngeal swabs, stool, cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and serum Treatment Most cases have no specific treatment Prevention Wash hands, avoid touching your face with unwashed hands, stay home when sick, Vaccinate against viral infections that can lead to viral meningitis

10 Bacterial meningitis Usually severe
Most people can recover, but it can cause serious complications Brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities Several pathogens can cause bacterial meningitis Leading causes in the U.S. include: Haemophilus influenzae (most often caused by type b, Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Neisseria meningitidis.

11 Risk factors Age- children and teens are at a higher risk for bacterial meningitis Community setting- Infectious diseases tend to spread more quickly where larger groups of people gather together. College students living in dormitories and military personnel are at increased risk for meningococcal meningitis. Season- The infection occurs more often in winter or spring

12 transmission The germs that cause bacterial meningitis can be contagious Some bacteria can spread through the exchange of respiratory and throat secretions fore example Kissing, sneezing or coughing on someone, living in closed quarters with an infected person Fortunately, most of the bacteria that cause meningitis are not as contagious as diseases like the common cold or the flu Healthy people can carry the bacteria in their nose or throat without getting sick. Rarely, these bacteria can invade the body and cause disease. Most people who ‘carry’ the bacteria never become sick.

13 Symptoms Can show up in a person by:
Sudden onset of a fever, headache and stiff neck It will often have other symptoms, such as Nausea Vomiting Increased sensitivity to light (photophobia) Altered mental status (confusion) The symptoms of bacterial meningitis can appear quickly or over several days. Typically they develop within 3-7 days after exposure.

14 Tests to diagnose meningitis
If the health care provider thinks meningitis is possible, a lumbar puncture (“spinal tap") should be done to remove a sample of spinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF) for testing. Tests that may be done include: Blood culture Chest x-ray CT scan of the head White blood cell (WBC) count

15 Treatment Antibiotics should be started as soon as possible
Appropriate antibiotic treatment of the most common types of bacterial meningitis should reduce the risk of dying from meningitis to below 15%, although the risk remains higher among young infants and the elderly Ceftriaxone is one of the most commonly used antibiotics for meningococcal meningitis Penicillin in high doses is almost always effective, too. If the patient is allergic to penicillin, chloramphenicol may be used Sometimes corticosteroids may be used, especially in children

16 Prevention People in close contact with someone who has meningococcal meningitis should be given antibiotics to prevent infection Such people include: household members, roommates in dormitories Vaccines are effective for controlling epidemics. They are currently recommended for: Adolescents College students in their first year living in dormitories Military recruits Travelers to certain parts of the world

17 Recent Meningococcal disease outbreaks
Two U.S. universities are experiencing unrelated outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal disease Princenton University 8 reported cases 1st case reported in March 2013 Serogroup B meningococcal vaccine is being used University of California, Santa Barbara 4 confirmed cases reported during November 2013

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