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Meningitis Created By: VSU Student Health Center Nursing Staff.

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Presentation on theme: "Meningitis Created By: VSU Student Health Center Nursing Staff."— Presentation transcript:

1 Meningitis Created By: VSU Student Health Center Nursing Staff

2 What is Meningitis? Infection of the fluid in the spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain Viral or Bacterial Etiology is important because of the seriousness of the illness and the treatment needed

3 Viral Meningitis Usually clears up in a week or two with no specific treatment Common; rarely serious infection of fluid in the spinal cord or fluid that surrounds the brain Also called aseptic meningitis

4 Causes of Viral Meningitis Caused by a number of different viruses  mosquito-borne viruses  occasionally seen after strep throat in young adults  common intestinal viruses account for half of U.S. cases per year

5 Signs and Symptoms Usually occur one week after exposure  Fever  Headache  Stiff neck  Tiredness  Rash  Sore Throat  Vomiting

6 Treatment and Prevention No specific treatment for viral meningitis Antibiotics do not work on viruses Pay careful attention to personal hygiene Good hand-washing helps prevent spread of infection and viruses

7 Bacterial Meningitis A serious infection of the fluid of the spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain Results from bacterial invasion of membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord (meninges) Meninges become swollen and inflamed, leading to classic s/s of meningitis

8 Causes of Bacterial Meningitis Three common bacteria:  Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib)  Neisseria meningitidis  Causes Meningococcal Meningitis  Streptococcus pneumoniae  Causes Pneumococcal Meningitis

9 How do people get Bacterial Meningitis? Bacteria are spread through direct contact with secretions from the nose or throat of an infected person None of the bacteria that cause meningitis are very contagious Not spread by casual contact or by simply breathing the same air where the person infected has been

10 Signs and Symptoms Under Age 2 Fever Headache Stiff neck Inactivity Vomiting Poor feeding Seizures  May be hard to detect in infants Over age 2 High fever Headache Stiff neck Nausea and vomiting Sensitivity to light Confusion Sleepiness Petechiae that spreads rapidly seizures

11 Diagnosis & Treatment Diagnosed via lumbar puncture (spinal tap) Check for bacterial growth in the spinal fluid Antibiotic administration based on bacteria found Close contacts identified and treated also Early diagnosis and treatment important

12 Potential Complications Advanced bacterial meningitis can lead to brain damage, coma, and death Survivors can suffer long-term hearing loss, mental retardation, paralysis, and seizures

13 Vaccinations Hib vaccine (3 doses by 6 months of age and a booster between 12-18 months of age) Meningococcal vaccine not routinely given to civilians in U.S. because most outbreaks occur in Africa Pneumococcal vaccine ineffective in persons under age 2  Recommended for all persons over age 65 with certain medical problems

14 Travel Precautions Check with your local health department if you are planning to travel outside the country. If meningococcal vaccination is recommended or required, it should be received at least one week before departure if possible.

15 Source American College Health Association, Baltimore, MD (2007) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007). eningococcal_g.htm. eningococcal_g.htm

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