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Plate 86 Viral Diseases of the Nervous System. Nervous System Central nervous system: – The meninges – The brain – The spinal cord Peripheral nervous.

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Presentation on theme: "Plate 86 Viral Diseases of the Nervous System. Nervous System Central nervous system: – The meninges – The brain – The spinal cord Peripheral nervous."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plate 86 Viral Diseases of the Nervous System

2 Nervous System Central nervous system: – The meninges – The brain – The spinal cord Peripheral nervous system: – Nerves radiating out from the spinal cord

3 Viral Diseases in the Nervous System Viruses enter the nervous system after passing through the bloodstream and lymph system Nerve cells (neurons) are killed during viral replication Neurons, especially in the CNS, regenerate very slowly, if at all

4 Poliomyelitis (Polio) Unenveloped RNA virus Icosahedral shape 3 strains of poliovirus exist Also known as “infantile paralysis” Poliovirus infects motor cells in the spinal cord, resulting in paralysis 1938, FDR founds the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis

5 Polio Symptoms About 95% of people infected with polio do not have any symptoms 4-8% of people get minor symptoms – Fever – Fatigue – Headache – Stiffness in the neck and back – Pain in limbs

6 Polio Symptoms Less than 1% of infected people suffer from permanent paralysis of their limbs Of those who are paralyzed, 5-10% die from the paralysis of their respiratory muscles Death rate increases with age

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8 Polio Transmission Spread through person-to-person contact and contaminated food/drink 1952, the U.S. had 57,628 polio cases

9 Polio Vaccine 1955, Dr. Jonas Salk creates the first vaccine containing inactivated polioviruses , U.S. polio cases drop by % 1961, Dr. Albert Sabin creates an oral vaccine using attenuated polioviruses 1979, last U.S. case caused by wild poliovirus 2004, only 1,263 polio cases worldwide

10 Progress to Eradicate Polio

11 Rabies Unenveloped RNA virus Helical shaped Distinct “bullet” shape Incubation period may last for weeks or months

12 Rabies Symptoms Symptoms appear at first to be similar to the flu: – Fever – Headache Within a few days, symptoms worsen: – Insomnia – Anxiety – Confusion – Hallucinations – Hypersalivation – Hydrophobia

13 Rabies Symptoms Once signs of rabies appear, the disease is almost always fatal Less than 10 documented cases in which people survived rabies

14 Rabies Transmission All mammals are susceptible to rabies infection Primarily found in dogs, raccoons, skunks, foxes, coyotes, and bats Typically spread from the bite of a rabid animal (virus is found in the saliva) Only case caused by human-to-human transmission occurred among recipients of transplanted corneas and organs

15 Rabies Treatment Rabies is 100% preventable through prompt medical care More than 55,000 people (mostly in Africa and Asia) die every year Human rabies immune globulin and vaccine are recommended for people who have been exposed to the virus September 28 – World Rabies Day


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