Presentation on theme: "W. 1 Compare the major ideas of philosphers and their effects on the democratic revolutions in England, U.S., France, and Latin America."— Presentation transcript:
W. 1 Compare the major ideas of philosphers and their effects on the democratic revolutions in England, U.S., France, and Latin America.
This is the title page to “Leviathan” by Thomas Hobbes. Look at the details of this picture. Explain what type of government Hobbes was a fan of. Write down examples of what you see in the picture.
The Scientific Revolution of the 1500s and 1600s had transformed the way people in Europe looked at the world. Scientific successes convinced educated Europeans of the power of human reason. Natural Law- rules discoverable by reason This Revolution of reasoning led to a movement known as the Enlightenment.
Hobbes outlined his ideas in a work called “Leviathan”. In it, he said people are naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish. If people aren’t strictly controlled, they would fight, rob, and oppress one another. Says people enter a social contract- an agreement by which they give up their freedom for an organized, controlled society. Only the most powerful government can pull this off known as an absolute monarchy.
Locke had an optimistic view on human nature. He thought people were reasonable and moral and had certain natural rights- rights that belonged to all humans from birth. These included right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. He wrote “Two Treatises of Government” which argued that governments are formed to protect people’s natural rights. He thought government should be very limited and the people should rule themselves.
He studied all types of governments from all over the world and criticized absolute monarchies. In 1748, he published “The Spirit of the Laws”. He felt best way to run a government was to divide the powers into three separate branches; Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. Each branch should be able to check the other two.
His real name was Francois-Marie Arouet. Early advocate for freedom of speech. He targeted corrupt officials and idle aristocrats by writing witty columns. He was eventually imprisoned and forced to exile.
He worked for 28 years to produce a 28-volume set of books known as the Encyclopedia. He did this to change the way of thinking by publishing articles from the world’s leader thinkers including Montesquieu and Voltaire. Encyclopedias contained articles that denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, and urged education for all. These helped extremely in spreading Enlightenment.
He believed people in their natural state were basically good, but that society corrupted humans. In 1762, he wrote “The Social Contract” in which he stated he felt society placed too many limitations on people’s behavior. He stated the good of the community as a whole, should be placed above individual interests.
Mercantilism – government regulation of the economy to achieve a favorable balance of trade Enlightened thinkers urged for laissez faire- allowed businesses to operate with little or no government interference. Adam Smith wrote “The Wealth of Nations” which promoted laissez faire.