Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment The Intellectual Revolution of the 17th and 18th Centuries."— Presentation transcript:
Enlightenment The Intellectual Revolution of the 17th and 18th Centuries
Thomas Hobbes Works: Leviathon Ideas: People are naturally cruel, greedy and selfish. Without strict control people would fight, oppress, and rob one another. Best government is an absolute monarchy.
John Locke Works: Two Treatises of Government. Ideas: People are reasonable and moral. Have certain rights to life, liberty and property. Best government has limited power and is accepted by all citizens. Government has an obligation to the people…people have the right to revolution.
Baron de Montesquieu Works: The Spirit of the Laws Ideas: Liked limited monarchy-separate branches of government- executive, legislative, judicial. System of Checks and Balances. Ideas made way into US Constitution. "In republican governments, men are all equal; equal they are also in despotic governments: in the former, because they are everything; in the latter, because they are nothing."
Voltaire Ideas: Attacked corrupt officials and idle aristocrats. Attacked inequality, injustice, superstition, the slave trade, and deplored religious prejudice. Defended freedom of speech. –“I do not agree with a word that you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it” –“ Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities”
Denis Diderot Works: The Encyclopedia Ideas: Wanted to change the general way of thinking. Used encyclopedia to explain the new ways of thinking on government, philosophy and religion. Work did much to shape ideas in Europe and the Americas.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Works: The Social Contract Ideas: People are basically good, but are corrupted by the evils of society. Government is good, give up self interests for the common good. Helped to fan the flames of revolution.
Adam Smith Works: The Wealth of Nations Ideas: Argued that the free market should be allowed to operate and regulate business. Everything was linked to supply and demand. Economy was better off without governmental control. “Virtue is more to be feared than vice, because its excesses are not subject to the regulation of conscience.”