Presentation on theme: "Warm Up: ▪What are you able to do as a teenager that you were not able to do as a child? ▪What changes occurred that allowed this new found freedom?"— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up: ▪What are you able to do as a teenager that you were not able to do as a child? ▪What changes occurred that allowed this new found freedom?
Brainstorm: ▪What do you know about the Enlightenment? ▪People? ▪Places? ▪Ideas?
The Enlightenment Thinkers SWBAT identify the main ideas of each of the major Enlightenment thinkers, compare their philosophies, and evaluate which thinker most influenced the era.
Thomas Hobbes Major Work: ▪Leviathan Ideas: ▪People are cruel, greedy and selfish. Therefore they need to be strictly controlled by a strong central government. ▪This is done so that people don't fight, oppress or rob one another also known as a State of Nature. In other words, man is naturally cruel, greedy, etc.. ▪Hobbes called for a social contract. People give up freedoms for an organized society. (less freedoms for the greater good)
John Locke Major Work: ▪Two Treatises of Government Ideas: ▪People are basically reasonable and moral. ▪People are born with rights that can’t be taken away: Life, Liberty, and Property (Natural Rights) ▪People form governments to protect their natural rights. ▪The best government has limited power and is accepted by all citizens. ▪If government fails the people, the people can overthrow the government.
Voltaire Major Work: ▪Several books which offended the French Government and Catholic Church Ideas: ▪Used sharp wit to target corrupt officials and aristocrats. ▪Wrote against social inequality, the slave trade, religious prejudice ▪Jailed, exiled, and banned from Paris all on the principle of freedom of speech.
Montesquieu Major Work: ▪Persian Letters ▪The Spirit of the Laws Ideas: ▪Spoke against social classes that seemed to be promoted by the French government. ▪The only way to protect liberty and avoid a corrupt government was to separate powers into three separate branches. Legislative, Executive, Judicial. ▪Each branch would be able to check the other two branches to ensure no abuse of power. This idea would be very influential when designing the United States constitution.
Denis Diderot Major Work: ▪Editor of the Encyclopedia Ideas: ▪His purpose was to “change the general way of thinking” ▪Targeted topics such as government, philosophy, and religion. ▪Featured articles by Montesquieu and Voltaire. ▪Articles denounced slavery, praised freedom of expression, and urged education for all. ▪Once translated, The Encyclopedia helped spread Enlightenment ideas through all of Europe and onto the Americas
Rousseau Major Work: ▪The Social Contract Ideas: ▪Unlike Hobbes, Rousseau believed that people in their natural state were good, but had been corrupted by society. ▪In the Social Contract, Rousseau expressed society placed too many limitations on people's behaviors. Furthermore, only freely elected governments could attempt to impose social controls. ▪Believed that the good of the whole should be placed above individual interest.