Presentation on theme: "1 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 This is the second of six revision topics. The impact of the Second World War McCarthyism."— Presentation transcript:
1 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 This is the second of six revision topics. The impact of the Second World War McCarthyism and the “Red Scare” Civil Rights in the USA, 1941-80 The “New Frontier” and the “Great Society” Protest movements in the 1960s and 1970s The Watergate Scandal and its impact Dwight EisenhowerHarry Truman
2 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 There are four sections to this topic. Why was there a fear of communism? Why was McCarthy able to gain support? Why did McCarthyism fade away? What were McCarthyism’s effects?
3 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 Why was there a fear of communism? Historically, the fear of Communism was a reaction against change. Communism was politically and economically opposite to the free market economy of the US. The USA feared the spread of Communism in post-WW2 Europe. The Berlin Blockade. The USSR developed the atomic bomb. Spread of communism in the post-war world: Eastern Europe, China. The Korean War. Spy scares in the post-war America: Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs.
4 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 Why was McCarthy able to gain support? Feb 1950: addresses Republican meeting in West Virginia. Claims to have a list of 205 communists working in State Dept. No list ever seen. Senate Committee set up to investigate. Decided McC was “fraud and hoax”. Committee chairman branded as communist. Defeated by pro-McC in Senate election. McCarran Internal Security Act passed. McC made chairman of Government Committee on Operations of the Senate. Now had the power to investigate state bodies. 100s of people interviewed. Being accused, even if found innocent would destroy lives and careers. Helped Republicans to an election victory. Nixon fuelled concerns to win votes. Congressional House un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) continued to investigate communist infiltration. Writers and actors blacklisted. 50 anti-communist films made by Hollywood.
5 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 Why did McCarthyism fade away? Role of Eisenhower Unsuccessfully attacked by McCarthy Established the Federal Loyalty Program (FELP) and passed Communist Control Act Role of the Army McCarthy accused the Army of being infiltrated by communists Televised investigation revealed McC. As a bully with no evidence to back claims Claims seen as unfounded Role of the Media TV examination of the Army Ed Murrow’s expose led to other journalists attacking McC. 1954 Public reprimand by the Senate (he was a member) Lost chairmanship of the Committee on the Operations of the Senate. Died in 1957.
6 Revise for GCSE History: A Divided Union? The USA, 1941-80 What were McCarthyism’s effects? Fear Loss of jobs, careers and wrecked lives End of traditional tolerance in the USA Fuelled Cold War tensions and the Arms Race Communist Party banned in the USA USA not a true democracy – communists not free Held back Civil Rights reforms Any reformer considered a “pinko” Fuelled traditional dislike of “egg-heads”