2 Review:What was the first Chinese dynasty to leave written recordsOn what river did the first Chinese civilizations develpWhat were the religious beliefs of the ancient chineseHow did dynasties end and new ones begin?What type of decentralized political system developed during the Zhou dynasty?ShangHuang He (Yellow)Ancestor Worship, Shang DiMandate of HeavenFeudalism
3 Dynasties of China Classical Period 1532 BCE Shang Dynasty 1027 BCE Zhou DynastyEra of the Warring States- Feudal System256 BCE Qin DynastyClassical Period202 BCE Han Dynasty220 CE – End of Han Dynasty
4 During the last 500 years of Zhou rule, regional rulers were constantly at war with each other. This period is called the Era of Warring States.One of these warring regional rulers, Qin, began to unite the regions by eliminating adversaries and defeating outside invaders. He was only thirteen! This began the Qin dynasty for which China is named. Qin became known as Qin Shi Huangdi which means “First Emperor.”
5 Qin Shi Huangdi’s government: Implemented a philosophy of legalism which was very harsh.Shi Huangdi was autocratic.Forced nobles to live within the royal compound to prevent a takeover.Seized their land and appointed administrators to govern creating an efficient bureaucracy.Rejected Confucianism and burned books that conflicted with his philosophy. Ordered the murder of Confucian scholars.
6 To end invasions from the north, Qin Shi Huangdi ordered one of the most ambitious building projects in history: The Great Wall of China.
8 The Great Wall of China The wall was built using forced labor. Many peasantsdied of exhaustion andwere buried inside the wall.Construction of the wallcontinued until the 17th century.It is 3,700 miles long.
9 Other Qin Dynasty Achievements Built highways which expanded tradeStandardized currency, weights and measures.Built irrigation systemsTo pay for his building projects, Qin Shi Huangdi raised taxes.
10 When Qin Shi Huangdi died, few people were sad. He hadmany enemies. Hisson ruled for three yearsand then was overthrownby Han rulers.Qin Shi Huangdi wasburied in a compoundalong with nearly 8,000life-sized terra cottasoldiers and horses.
13 The Han Dynasty lasted over 400 years, from 202 BCE to 220 CE The Han Dynasty lasted over 400 years, from 202 BCE to 220 CE. Its legacy:Politically-Centralized powerEnded legalism, softenedpunishmentslowered taxesBrought peace and stability back to China which means that the Han rulers had…..THE MANDATE OF HEAVENLiu Bang, first Han emperor who was a peasant
14 What is a civil service? Political legacy under Wudi Conquered and colonized Manchuria, Korea, expanded South into present-day VietnamStrengthened and structured bureaucracyAdopted Confucianism replacing legalismAssimilated newly conquered peoplesImplemented a civil serviceEmperor Wudi’s TombWhat is a civil service?
15 A civil service is a system of hiring government workers.During the Han Dynasty,government officials were hiredbased on their knowledge ofConfucian principles. Studentswere required to study andpass a rigorous exam.What was the effect of the civil service exam?Government jobs based on merit rather than wealth or loyalty to the emperor, the establishment of the first university based on Confucian principles.
16 Han Achievementsinvention of paperAgricultural tools, wheelbarrowcollar harnessWatermillsHan China’s economy was primarily agricultural – the population exploded to 60 million people!Trade and industry were important too but were secondaryHan government had monopolies on salt mining, forgingOf iron, minting of coins.
17 EconomyIn the Classical period, China it would become a manufacturer to the world, trading along the Silk Road and Indian Ocean routes.Silk, Porcelain andPaper were tradedalong the silk roads.Porcelain
19 Socially, Women devoted themselves to their families. Confucian principles established that the role for women was to obey husbands and the husband’s families.Women were to be pure, obedient and faithful.Some upper class women were educated and livedindependently.
20 Three primary social classes comprised Classical china Landowning aristocracy including educated bureaucrats--they paid no taxeson their land.Peasants, laborers and artisans who manufactured goods.The “Mean” people – those without meaningful skills including performing artists.*Slaves were not widespreadand did not produce goods.*Merchants were looked down uponbecause they didn’t work hard and werethought to be greedy.
21 Although Buddhism had arrived in China along the silk roads through traders and monks, it was not widely spread during this time.Buddhism’s principles were not well accepted because they conflicted with Confucian ideals of filial piety.The Han period was a time of prosperity while Buddhism’s monastic lifestyle and rejectionof materialism stifled its spread until the end of the Han dynasty.Buddhism
22 The Decline of the Han Dynasty The widening gap between rich and poor caused political instability in the later Han period.The Yellow Turban Rebellion was a revolt by desperate peasants to redistribute land from the wealthy to the peasant class.As small landowners died, their land was divided equally among their sons. The lots became too small to produce. Also, large landowners paid no taxes on their lands.The Decline of the Han DynastySocial unrest led to the assassination of the last Han Ruler and the dynasty disintegrated into 3 rival kingdoms.