Presentation on theme: "EQ – Why did the Chinese call themselves the “Middle Kingdom?” Preview – In a brief paragraph, examine the “Dynastic Cycle” and the “Mandate of Heaven”"— Presentation transcript:
EQ – Why did the Chinese call themselves the “Middle Kingdom?” Preview – In a brief paragraph, examine the “Dynastic Cycle” and the “Mandate of Heaven” as they relate to the Chinese Dynasties.
CHINA IS GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED desert Gobi Desert Pacific Ocean Thick Jungles Himalayan Mountains Zhong Guo = Middle Kingdom
Huang He = Yellow River River of Sorrows Deposits yellow silt called loess Location of China’s earliest civilization
New Dynasty Period of peace & prosperity Period of decline & struggles Rebellion is justified Old Dynasty loses Mandate of Heaven New Dynasty gains Mandate of Heaven
Shang Dynasty (1600-1027 BC) First recorded dynasty in China Period of constant warfare Expert bronze casters (ceremonial vases) Wove silk into fabric Developed a system of writing where symbols = ideas (no direct connection w/ spoken language)
Oracle Bones The Shang consulted the gods by writing questions on bones or shells and then interpreted the fragments after they were cracked.
Zhou Dynasty (1027-c.256 BC) Developed “Mandate of Heaven” theory Established feudalism (ruler exchanged land for loyalty) Produced cast iron, built roads/canals, developed a uniform currency App. 500 years of disunity and struggles Spring & Autumn Period (770 - 476 BC) Warring States Period (476 – 221 BC) Legalism, Confucianism, Daoism emerge
Sun Tzu’s Art of War The best victory is when the opponent surrenders of its own accord before there are any actual hostilities...It is best to win without fighting. - “Planning a Siege” Victorious warriors win first and then go to war, while defeated warriors go to war first and then seek to win. - “Strategic Assessments”
Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC) Est. by Shi Huangdi – “First Emperor” Forced the nobility to move into the capital. Autocratic (absolute) govt. based on Legalism Divided empire into 36 military districts Unified existing walls creating 1 st “Great Wall” Promoted unity by… standard weights/measurements; uniform written language; good transportation; very harsh rule
Shi Huangdi’s Tomb Scale model of his kingdom Flowing river of liquid mercury Accurate star map made of diamonds Life size army of terra cotta warriors
Han Dynasty (206 BC – AD 220) Pinnacle of Chinese power & prosperity Est. by a peasant named Liu Bang Wudi – “martial emperor” – expanded the empire through warfare Strong central govt. where people got jobs based on their education Encouraged assimilation (conquered peoples become a part of Chinese culture)
Han Achievements App. eastern equivalent to Roman Empire Invented paper, collar harness, wheelbarrow, water-mills Traded with the west over the Silk Road Govt. ran businesses- salt, iron, coinage, silk Confucian civil service exams Anyone could take them – but very difficult Used for govt. appointments until AD 1912
China Vocabulary Oracle Bones – earliest examples of Chinese writing – how Shang contacted their gods Mandate of Heaven – divine authority to rule China Dynastic Cycle – theory detailing the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties Assimilation – one group is made a part of another group’s culture Silk Road – overland trade route from China to the Mediterranean
Processing Choose one of the following Imagine you are a poor farmer and one day you stumble across Shi Huangdi’s tomb. Write a journal entry for that day. What did you see? What were your thoughts? Imagine you are a merchant on the Silk Road. Write a journal entry depicting several days of your journey. What have you encountered? Are you going to or from China? What types of goods do you currently have in your possession?