Presentation on theme: "Ancient China Uniting China – Lesson 3. The First Chinese Empire Qin – small state in Western region (Wei River Valley) During Warring States, Qin generals."— Presentation transcript:
The First Chinese Empire Qin – small state in Western region (Wei River Valley) During Warring States, Qin generals conquered other states army rode horses iron weapons Zhou fell 256BC – Qin most powerful state 246BC - 13 year old became king of Qin
The First Chinese Empire By 221BC, Qin controlled all Northern states = first empire King changed name to Qin Shi Huangdi “First Emperor of China” Qin empire lasted only 15 years Made changes that had lasting influence
The First Chinese Empire China – comes from name Qin Shi Huangdi ruled by fear = Legalism ABSOLUTE POWER Able to create efficient government – but cruel Laws strictly enforced – punishment severe Those who opposed were killed.
Something to think about … What do you need to have in order to maintain absolute power?
Building a Bureaucracy Legalism needed strong government to control people and economy Shi Huangdi built strong army and bureaucracy BUREAUCRACY = large group of appointed officials Feudal system had to go Shi Huangdi wanted his officials to control land and taxes – not feudal lords
Something to think about … What do you think happened to the feudal kings?
Building a Bureaucracy Land taken from nobles – some given to peasants so taxes went directly to government To prevent nobles turning against him, Shi forced all to move to capital city (Xianyang) so officials could keep an eye on them Further protection from rebellion – if not in army, you can’t own weapons
Building a Bureaucracy In place of feudal lands, empire divided into districts Shi Huangdi picked officials to manage districts
Standardizatio n STANDARDIZATION = making systems to same for everyone Shi standardized money, weights and measures and writing
Standardizatio n To standardize writing, only 2 kinds allowed. 1 for official documents and stone carving 1 for everyday use To improve trade – standardized coins Also – ordered building of canals and roads All roads had to be same width so carts could travel on them
Standardization Education standardized – Shi Huangdi controlled all books used to teach Any books that might question Qin ideas were burned books on Confucianism burned Although harsh methods, did united people and made empire easier to control
Building a Great Wall Defensive wall to keep out invaders from north Shi Huangdi ordered workers to connect smaller walls that already existed 10 years – workers forced to build wall – not enough to eat, freezing weather – many died Used available material – stone, birck, dirt
Building a Great Wall Wall 25 feet high 20 feet wide Over 3000 miles east – west Soldiers kept watch from 40’ tall towers – if enemies approaching,used smoke or fire to signal next tower as so forth– continued until reached capital BUT – invaders still attacked
Emperor’s Clay Army Shi Huangdi planned great burial place for himself Ordered tomb built as soon as became king (age 13) Under construction for over 30 years – not complete when he died Farmers in 1970 accidentally discovered tomb when drilling a well
Emperor’s Clay Army Some parts had been robbed in ancient times, but much remained In tomb army of larger than life-size clay soldiers holding real weapons Each figure life-like and different than others So far 7,000 have been uncovered All face east – direction of kingdoms Shi Huangdi conquered
Emperor’s Clay Army Also life-size clay horses and wood and bronze war chariots All figures originally painted bright colors Site extends over huge area
Something to think about … What does Shi Huangdi’s tomb reveal about him?
Emperor’s Clay Army Shi Huangdi buried in tomb at death in 210BC Son became emperor, but couldn’t keep control Officials fought for power – people in empire rebelled