R ECOGNIZING THE I MPORTANCE OF P LANT AND S OIL S CIENCE
O BJECTIVES Identify the various roles of plants in everyday lifeIdentify the various roles of plants in everyday life; Identify the various segments of plant and soil scienceIdentify the various segments of plant and soil science; and Identify important types of plants and their usesIdentify important types of plants and their uses.
R OLES OF P LANTS IN E VERYDAY L IFE Why do we need plants? Food Food Chain Oxygen Let’s list the most important uses of plants
R OLES OF P LANTS IN E VERYDAY L IFE Edible Plants Whole plants Portions of plants The most important – can you guess? Grains Wheat, rice, corn, barley About 88% of the world’s total caloric intake comes from plant food sources About 80% of the world’s protein intake comes from plant food sources Some plants are used to make beverages
R OLES OF P LANTS IN E VERYDAY L IFE Industrial Uses Wood What is it use for? Fiber What is it use for? Chemicals What is it use for? Rubber What is it use for?
R OLES OF P LANTS IN E VERYDAY L IFE Medicinal uses Plants have played a very important role in developing medicines Scientists are still studying plants to understand the chemical compounds found within them Some believe that some of our most deadly diseases will be cured by an undiscovered plant compound
R OLES OF P LANTS IN E VERYDAY L IFE Oils Many plants store oils as food in the seed or plant itself Some oils are used to make or produce food for humans Others are used in industry What are some oil producing plants?
S EGMENTS OF P LANT AND S OIL S CIENCE What makes up the top layer of the earth’s crust? Soil What is soil science? Study of structure, composition, fertility, use, and protection of soil. What is plant science? Study of structure, functions, growth, and protection of plants Can be divided into 3 categories
S EGMENTS OF P LANT AND S OIL S CIENCE 3 categories of Plant Science Field Crops Forestry Horticulture Crops
S EGMENTS OF P LANT AND S OIL S CIENCE Field Crops Plants (other than fruits and veggies) grown in large fields and are used for agricultural purposes oil, fiber, grain, etc… Corn and wheat are often grown for their seed but other parts of the plant can be used Agronomy specializes in field crops and their relations with the soil
S EGMENTS OF P LANT AND S OIL S CIENCE Forestry Science of growing trees and producing wood products What are some wood products? Tree Farms are cultured forests that are carefully planned
S EGMENTS OF P LANT AND S OIL S CIENCE Horticulture Crops Grown for food, comfort, and beauty Two major areas of horticulture are Ornamental Horticulture Food Crop Horticulture
S EGMENTS OF P LANT AND S OIL S CIENCE Ornamental Horticulture Plants used for their beauty Floriculture Use of plants for the flowers and foliage Foliage is the stems and leaves
S EGMENTS OF P LANT AND S OIL S CIENCE Ornamental Horticulture Landscape Horticulture Growing and using plants to make outdoor environment more appealing Shrubs, flowering plants, lawn areas
S EGMENTS OF P LANT AND S OIL S CIENCE Ornamental Horticulture Interiorscaping Plants inside buildings to create an attractive indoor environment
S EGMENTS OF P LANT AND S OIL S CIENCE Food Crop Horticulture Growing plants for food Includes orchards and gardens
F OOD C ROP H ORTICULTURE Food Crop Horticulture Olericulture Science of producing vegetable crops Pomology Science of producing fruit and nuts
T ODAY ’ S A SSIGNMENT (N EED A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER ) For each area of plant science, list 5 crops that are grown. Field crops, Floriculture, Landscape, Interiorscape, Olericulture, Pomology, Forestry. Circle the plant in each section that you would be most interested in learning about. Choose 2 areas of plant science that interest you and write a paragraph about each one explaining why you are interested, what kind of crops do you want to grow, etc…
T YPES OF P LANTS AND T HEIR U SES Very few wild plants play an important role in everyday life Plant Domestication is removing plants from their native environment and growing them under controlled conditions
T YPES OF P LANTS AND T HEIR U SES Seven categories of important domesticated plants in North America They are all field and horticulture crops
T YPES OF P LANTS AND T HEIR U SES Grain Crops Plants grown for an edible seed Does not include nuts Cereal Grains is the seed of grass-type plants grown for food and animal feed
T YPES OF P LANTS AND T HEIR U SES Sugar Crops Source of sucrose Sucrose is a carbohydrate that provides energy Major sugar crops Sugar beets Sugar cane Can you think of other sources of sugar?
T YPES OF P LANTS AND T HEIR U SES Oil Crops Grown for the vegetable oil in their seeds and fruits Major oil crops for the U.S. are: Soybeans Cotton Canola Corn
T YPES OF P LANTS AND T HEIR U SES Fiber Crops Grown for the fiber harvested from their fruit, stems, or leaves What are fibers? Threadlike structures used to manufacture cloth, paper, and other things What is the major fiber crop? Cotton Others include flax, hemp, jute, and ramie
T YPES OF P LANTS AND T HEIR U SES Vegetable, Fruit, and Nut Crops Primarily grown for food
T YPES OF P LANTS AND T HEIR U SES Forage Crops Forage : leaves and stems of plants used for animal feed Primarily grasses or legumes Grasses are non-woody plants that have parallel veins in their leaves Legumes are broad-leaf plants that have the potential to fix nitrogen from air in the soil Forages can be grazed or harvested and stored for later feeding
T YPES OF P LANTS AND T HEIR U SES Ornamental and Turf Crops Ornamental Crops : flowers, shrubs, vines, and other plants grown for beauty and appeal Turf Crops : provide a pleasing look and protect the soil Usually grasses What are they protecting the soil from?
T YPES OF P LANTS AND T HEIR U SES Other crops These just don’t fit in any other group Beverages Coffee, tea, use your imagination Herbs, spices, or medicine