Plant Science Introduction Standards and Objectives
Definition Plant science is first and foremost the science and technology of the production of crops. A crop is any plant used by human beings.
Other related areas Agronomy - field crops, wheat, corn, soybeans Horticulture - fruits, veggies, woody ornamentals and floriculture crops Forestry - wood and pulp production, recreation, wildlife and watershed management Weed science - deal with controlling and management of unwanted plants.
Where did our crops originate? Southwestern and central Asia Mediterranean region Southwestern Asia Highlands of tropical America Why is this important to know? So, as research continues they can use the plants origin to improve its genetics!
What crops originated in America? Cranberry Blueberry Pecan Plum Grape Strawberry
Why study Plant Science? List on your own sheet of paper 5 reasons explaining in detail why you as a high school Ag student are studying plant science. Be prepared to share these with the class.
What should we study? As a class we have determined why we should study plant science, but now list 5 things that we should study. Be prepared to share your list with the class.
Major Uses of Plants as FOOD Grains Starchy Foods Vegetables Fruits Sugar Crops Oil Crops Nut, Spice and Beverage Crops
GRAINS Grain yielding grasses are a major source of human food. In temperate regions, WHEAT is primary source. Warmer regions, RICE is primary source. Other major grain crops in grass family: Corn, oats, rye, barley, millet and grain sorghum.
STARCHY FOODS In addition to cereal grains, starchy roots and other plant parts have served as a food staple for centuries. EXAMPLES: Potatoes Sweet potato Cassava Yam Banana (in tropical regions of the world)
VEGETABLES Sweet corn Snap bean Pea Bean Lettuce Tomato These all contribute variety to the human diet as well as vitamins and minerals.
FRUITS Tropical Regions Important Fruit Crops Banana Pineapple Mango Papaya Orange Lemon lime
FRUITS cont. Popular fruit in temperate zones: Apple Pear Peach Cherry Plum Apricot Small fruits Grape, raspberry Strawberry, blackberry, blueberry and currant
Sugar Crops In spite of its lack of protein, vitamins and minerals, sugar is a major dietary component, especially in developed countries. Sugarcane - grown in tropical and subtropical climates Sugar beet - grown in temperate climates Many other plants contain starch that can be converted to sugar such as CORN SYRUP
Oil Crops Because of the relationship between heart disease and animal fats, plant oil crops especially soybean production has skyrocketed in the last 50 years Major sources of oil crops are: Soybean Sunflower Peanut Corn Cottonseed Olive Coconut Safflower Certain Palms
Nut, Spice and Beverage Crops Other components of a human diet Nuts Walnut Pecan Spices Vanilla Pepper Allspice Oregano Beverages Coffee Chocolate Tea Cola
Nonfood Uses of Plants Fiber Crops Timber, Fuel and Pulp Aesthetic Uses (?????)
Fiber Crops Plant fibers have been used since prehistoric times to make cloth. Major sources: Cotton and Flax Natural fibers have been replaced with synthetics. Nylon, rayon, polyester Common to see a blend of natural and synthetic fibers together. Cotton/polyester blend
Timber, Fuel and Pulp Forests provide us with timber for lumber products. Forest Management has been a major concern in the past 20 years. Forests provide for recreation such as hiking, camping, 4-wheeling, hunting. Forests stabilize watershed areas, which affect fishing and boating activities.
Aesthetic Uses of Plants Aesthetic = the way something looks Using plants for beauty dates back to the dynastic EGYPTIANS. Today, we use cut flowers, turf grasses, green foliage. All of these take into account other aspects of plant science such as seeds, fertilizer, equipment and care.