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Animal, Plant & Soil ScienceAnimal, Plant & Soil Science E1-1 The Importance of Plant Science.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal, Plant & Soil ScienceAnimal, Plant & Soil Science E1-1 The Importance of Plant Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal, Plant & Soil ScienceAnimal, Plant & Soil Science E1-1 The Importance of Plant Science

2 Interest Approach Ask students to name the top five crops in terms of amount produced in your state. Refer to the state department of agriculture’s annual agricultural summary for a listing of these crops and the amount of each crop produced. Create five vertical columns on the writing surface. Put the name of one of the top five crops at the top of each column. Then ask students to name some possible uses of each of the various crops. Compile a list of uses for each crop in the appropriate column.

3 Objectives 1 Describe the various uses of plants in everyday life. 2 Identify and describe the various segments of plant science. 3 Identify important types of plants and explain their uses. 4 Explain the impact of agricultural plants on U.S. economies.

4 Terms agronomy cereal grain fiber crops fibers field crops floriculture foliage food crop horticulture forage forestry fruit

5 Terms grain crops grasses herb horticulture legumes nursery/landscape nut crops oil crops olericulture ornamental horticulture

6 Terms plant domestication plant science pomology spice sucrose sugar crops tree farms turf vegetable vegetable, fruit, and nut crops

7 What are the various uses of plants in everyday life? I. Plants are the base of the food chain for all living things. Plants are able to utilize inorganic elements and incorporate them into living tissues. Many organisms rely on plants for the energy to carry out life processes. The roles that plants play in the everyday lives of all living things are numerous. A few of the most important uses are food, industrial, medicinal, and oil.

8 What are the various uses of plants in everyday life? A. Many plants are edible. Whole plants or portions of plants, such as seeds and fruits, are used as a food source for many types of animals, including humans. 1. The most important food plants are the grains of the grass family, particularly wheat, rice, corn, sorghum, and barley. In parts of the world where these crops do not grow well, such as countries found in the tropics, starchy root crops are grown for the same purpose. Examples of these crops are yams, sweet potatoes, and manioc (or cassava).

9 What are the various uses of plants in everyday life? 2. About 88 percent of the world’s total caloric intake and about 80 percent of its protein intake comes from plant food sources. 3. In addition to food, plants are also used in the production of beverages. Some of the major beverages derived from plants are coffee, tea, and fruit juice.

10 What are the various uses of plants in everyday life? B. Plants have industrial uses. There are several important products produced from plants, such as wood, fibers, oils, and rubber. 1. Many of the fibers used in textile manufacturing come from cotton, flax, and hemp plants. 2. The wood from timber production is used to make furniture, homes, and many other products. 3. Many chemicals, such as acetic acid, methanol, and turpentine, are obtained from trees.

11 What are the various uses of plants in everyday life? C. Since early human development, plants have served medicinal purposes. The importance that plants play in the development of medicines is becoming increasingly evident. 1. Scientists continue to study many different types of plants to try to understand the various chemical compounds found within them. 2. Many people believe that the key to curing many of our most deadly diseases, such as cancer and AIDS, may lie within plant compounds that have yet to be discovered.

12 What are the various uses of plants in everyday life? D. Many plants store oil as a food reserved in the seeds and fruits of the plant. Most of these plant oils are used in the production of food for humans, but some are used in industry. 1. The soybean is the most significant oil plant. 2. Others, such as coconut, sunflower, peanut, cottonseed, and rapeseed, also play an important role in plant oil production.

13 What are the various segments of plant science? II. Plant science is the study of the structure, functions, growth, and protection of plants. Plant science can be divided into three major segments: agronomy, horticulture, and forestry.

14 What are the various segments of plant science? A. Agronomy is a specialized area of plant science that deals with field crops. Agronomy includes the relationship between plants and the soil. 1. Field crops include plants grown in large fields and are used for oil, fiber, grain, and similar products. 2. Field crops, such as corn and wheat, are often grown for their seeds, but other parts may also be used.

15 What are the various segments of plant science? B. Horticulture is the production and use of plants for food, comfort, and beauty. The two major areas of horticulture are ornamental and food crop production. 1. Ornamental horticulture involves growing and using plants for their beauty. Two main divisions of horticulture are floriculture and nursery/landscape. –a. Floriculture is the production and use of plants for their flowers and foliage. Foliage refers to the stems and leaves of a plant. –b. Nursery/landscape involves growing and using plants to make the outdoor environment more appealing. It includes shrubs, flowering plants, and lawn areas.

16 What are the various segments of plant science? 2. Food crop horticulture consists of growing plants for food. This can be divided into the two areas of olericulture and pomology. –a. Olericulture is the science of producing vegetable crops. –b. Pomology is the science of producing fruits and nuts.

17 What are the various segments of plant science? C. Forestry is the science of growing trees and producing wood products. 1. Tree farms are cultured forests that have been carefully planned, established, and maintained. 2. A great deal of labor and management goes into assuring high-quality timber.

18 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? III. Very few plants that play an important role in everyday life are harvested in the wild. Most of the important plants have been domesticated. Plant domestication refers to removing plants from their native wild environment and growing them under controlled conditions. The important field and horticultural crops of North America can be divided into different categories. Major categories are grain crops; sugar crops; oil crops; fiber crops; vegetable, fruit, and nut crops; forage crops; ornamental crops; and forest crops.

19 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? A. Grain crops include plants grown for their edible seeds, not including the horticultural crops. 1. Cereal grain is the seed of grass- type plants grown for food and animal feed. 2. Important grain crops include rice, corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye, and sorghum.

20 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? B. Sugar crops are used as a source of sucrose sweeteners. Sucrose is a carbohydrate that provides energy for physical activity by the body. 1. The major sugar crops are sugar beets and sugar cane. 2. Other sources are honey, maple syrup, and some kinds of sorghum.

21 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? C. Oil crops are plants grown for the vegetable oil contained in their seeds and fruit. 1. Some of the major crops of this area are soybeans, cotton, canola, and corn. 2. Other common oil seeds are sunflower, safflower, peanut, coconut, linseed, and palm.

22 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? D. Fiber crops are grown for the fiber produced in their fruit, leaves, or stems. Fibers are tiny, threadlike structures used in manufacturing cloth, paper, and other materials. 1. Cotton is the major fiber crop. 2. Others include flax, kenaf, hemp, jute, and ramie.

23 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? E. Vegetable, fruit, and nut crops are grown primarily for food. There are many different types of plants in this category. 1. A vegetable is typically a herbaceous plant that is grown for its edible parts, such as leaves, stems, seeds, or roots. These edible parts are usually eaten as part of a meal. Examples of vegetables include lettuce, asparagus, and carrots.

24 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? 2. A fruit is a succulent, reproductive body of a seed plant used chiefly in a dessert or sweet course. Common fruits are apples, raspberries, and bananas. 3. Nut crops are botanically unrelated plants that are grouped together because their fruit type is a nut and their harvesting, post-harvest processing, nutritional value, and marketing characteristics are relatively similar. Nut crops include walnuts, macadamia nuts, and pistachios.

25 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? F. Forage crops are primarily grasses and legumes. 1. Grasses are nonwoody plants that have parallel veins in their leaves. Grass plants used for forage include Bahiagrass, ryegrass, and fescue. 2. Legumes are broadleaf plants that have the potential of fixing nitrogen from the air in the soil. Examples of legumes are alfalfa, clover, and soybeans. 3. Forage refers to the leaves and stems of plants used for animal feed. It is most nutritious while the plants are still young, before seed maturity. These crops are harvested by animals grazing in a pasture or are cut, dried, and stored to be fed later.

26 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? G. Ornamental crops include bedding plants, shrubs, trees, vines, turf, and other species grown for their beauty and personal appeal. 1. Turf comprises plants used to present a pleasing appearance and to protect the soil. 2. These plants are low-growing, fine-leaved grasses used in lawns and to cover the ground to prevent soil erosion.

27 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? H. Forest crops consist of trees planted for the purpose of harvest. Some purposes include lumber, pulpwood, furniture, and paper. Valued timber species include Douglas fir, longleaf pine, and black walnut.

28 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? I. There are many other crops grown for a variety of specific uses. 1. Beverage crops, such as coffee, tea, and cocoa, are typically grown in tropical areas.

29 What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? 2. Herbs and spices are grown in small quantities throughout North America. These crops have little food value but are used to improve the flavor of food and to make it more attractive. –a. An herb is a non-woody plant with leaves, seeds, or other parts used as medicine or to enhance food. –b. A spice is an aromatic plant part used to season food. –c. Distinguishing between herbs and spices is difficult. Even with the best definitions, some overlap exists. 3. Medicinal plants are those used in making human medicines.

30 What is the impact of agricultural plants on the U.S. economy? IV. Agricultural plants have a huge impact on the U.S. economy.

31 What is the impact of agricultural plants on the U.S. economy? 1. In 2005, there were about 72,500 Illinois farms collectively covering 77 percent of the state. In 2005, cash receipts from marketing all crops totaled $6.9 billion.

32 What is the impact of agricultural plants on the U.S. economy? B. According to the USDA National Agriculture Statistics Service, there were more than 434 million acres of cropland and 1,362,608 farms in the United States in The market value of crops, including nursery and greenhouse crops, totaled approximately $95.2 billion. 2. About 19.2 percent of the United States is covered by cropland.

33 What is the impact of agricultural plants on the U.S. economy? C. Along with crops, cropland, and farmers, plant production supports millions of Americans. Many people are employed in the processing, packaging, distributing, and marketing of crops.

34 REVIEW 1. What are the various uses of plants in everyday life? 2. What are the various segments of plant science? 3. What are some important types of plants and what are their uses? 4. What is the impact of agricultural plants on the U.S. economy?


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