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Ju/’hoansi Camps Traditional social unit Nuclear & extended families, ~10-30 people Flexible group of related people - Live together and move together.

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Presentation on theme: "Ju/’hoansi Camps Traditional social unit Nuclear & extended families, ~10-30 people Flexible group of related people - Live together and move together."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ju/’hoansi Camps Traditional social unit Nuclear & extended families, ~10-30 people Flexible group of related people - Live together and move together at least part of the year Seasonal movements Economically self-sufficient Core = ‘owners’, k’ausi

2 Ju/’hoansi Camps Children inherit rights to parents’ camps Changing composition –Deplete local food resources –Visiting –Conflict –Marriage Couples live with either’s parents Bride service –Demographic composition Too many children or old people Flexible Unit of sharing Interconnected by kinship Move seasonally - water –Aggregate – dry winter –Disperse – wet summer

3 The Ju/’hoansi Subsistence & Organization Summary Mobility 3-6 temporary villages More settled since 1970s Camp Size: 10-30 Settlement Pattern: Nomadic “Dispersion and Aggregation” Subsistence Strategy: Foraging Economic System: Reciprocity Sharing Hxaro Social Organization Division of Labor: Age & Sex Egalitarian Political Organization: Band Acephalous Status: Achieved/Ephemeral Leveling Mechanisms Conflict Resolution Leave to join other group Fight

4 Neolithic Revolution ~12,000 years ago Domestication of plants and animals –Fertile Crescent, Thailand, China, Africa, New World Increased food production –Increased carrying capacity, but decline in health –Population density  disease Set in motion: –Increased population –Sedentary lifestyle –Property rights –Permanent settlements –Greater division of labor/specialization –Complex social structure –New technology –Civilization (complex urban centers) –Inequality, poverty, war –Environmental degradation

5 Horticulture Cultivate gardens Hand tools Small plots Human power only No irrigation, fertilizer, animal power May also forage, trade, keep animals Small-scale –Slightly more complex than foragers –Some status differences Little surplus Shifting cultivation ( swidden, slash & burn)

6 Horticultural Societies

7 Horticulture 1 - 2.5-acre plots Semipermanent villages 200-400 people Low population density Land-extensive More labor than foraging Shifting/swidden/slash & burn Fallowing Sustainable –Yąnomamö –Lacondon Maya, Chiapas Reasons for not fallowing –Reduced land access –Taxes –Cash for manufactured goods –Sora of eastern India

8 Horticulturalists – Social Organization No class divisions –Some differences in status –Gender stratification varies Organization of labor –Family is core work group –Gender Male and female work roles differentiated Staple vs. prestige crops Iroquois – women cultivated & controlled maize Yąnomamö– men cultivate, cook for feasts Critical factor in women’s status: control of distribution beyond family –Children work, esp. girls in some Property –Use rights, but more clearly defined

9 Pastoral Societies Navajo Quechua

10 Pastoralism Areas unsuitable for agriculture Nomadic or semi-nomadic –Transhumance – some move with animals –Nomadism – everyone moves with animals Extensive, temporary land use Climate change, lands taken –Trade, gardening, jobs Social functions of animals –marriage –rituals –blood compensation –status

11 Organization of Labor –Unit of production: family or family cluster –Gender Little overlap Sami vs. Navajo Animal size –Children work Land and property –Use rights –Animals, housing, domestic goods –Most patrilineal Conflict with farmers Sustainable if no outside intervention

12 Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania –Cattle = wealth –Sustainable before colonial intervention Kept farmers out Controlled burns Only slaughter for ritual occasions Transhumance followed indigenous wildlife Organized use of water and pasture Open access (use rights) British colonization in 19 th century Conflict over land use/ownership Integration into global market economy

13 Use Rights vs. Ownership “Un-owned” land confiscated by governments –Tourism, farms, ranches –Resources –Control, taxes Homestead Acts –1862: 160 acres –1909: 320 acres –1916: 640 acres –Discontinued in U.S. 1976, Alaska 1986 Indigenous peoples –Forced assimilation, exploitation, extermination –Loss of knowledge of sustainable relationships with environment In 1838-1839 15,000 Cherokee people were forcefully removed from their homelands in Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee to live in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. The Cherokee called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because Over 4,000 of them died of hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march.

14 First Intensive Agricultural Societies ~5,000 years ago

15 Agriculture Intensive Animal & machine power Chemicals, technology More capital & labor inputs Increased carrying capacity Occupational specialization Greater stratification Permanent settlements Private property Larger families Increased population density Cultural/technological adaptation: Intensive agriculture  increased surpluses & population  specialization  stratification

16 Family Farming/Peasant Agriculture Small-scale Tied to larger political & market systems Subsistence & some surplus to sell Use labor from own household Sedentary Foundation for society Most exploited Organization of Labor –Family = unit of production –Distinct gender division of labor –Public/private dichotomy

17 Industrialism Mass commercial and business employment Industrial capitalism: Production for consumer demands Decrease in agricultural employment Increase in manufacturing & service employment Foraging  Horticulture  Agriculture  Industrialism –Increase in agricultural productivity (carrying capacity) –Population growth –Increased urbanization

18 Industrial Agriculture/Agribusiness Capital intensive Mechanized energy sources Technological & chemical inputs Rural  urban migration High environmental costs GM crops Corporate farms Fish farms Factory farms

19 Consequences of Industrial Agriculture Increased energy use –6 calories for 1 calorie of food –Least energy-efficient mode of production Decline of the family farm –Use of exploited hired labor –Displaces other systems –Destroys habitats Unsustainable –E.g. failure of “Green Revolution” –Animal agriculture –GM crops

20 Division of Labor Intensive agriculture  increased surpluses & population density  increased occupational specialization Gender Age Occupational specialization Émile Durkheim: Social Solidarity Mechanical Small-scale Little division of labor Commonality Homogeneity Organic Larger, complex societies High degree of specialization interdependence

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