3Shifting Cultivation?Where? Practiced in Humid Low-Latitude (high temps & abundant rainfall) South America, Central/West Africa, & SE AsiaCharacteristics: lash & burn agriculture or notching & swidden (small villages)3 yr life spanCrops: rice, maize, cassava, millet, sorghum, yams, sugarcane, plantainNotching of trees, clear land (swidden) and burn, releasing nutrients when combined with rain, can take 6 to 20 years to return
4Ownership of Land in Shifting Who? Owned by the villages/ villagers designated patches of land.Future of Shifting Cultivation: tropics are be deforested to make way for logging, ranching, & cash crops.Critics: 1) commercial farming causes irreversible damage 2) global warming 3) upsets traditional cultures
5Pastoral NomadismWhat? Is a form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animalsWhere? Dry climates that lack agriculture, SW Asia, N. AfricaUses? Provide milk, skins/ hair for clothing and tentsEconomics: size of their herd measurements of wealth and prestige, trade with subsistence farmers for grain, vegetables, fruits.
6Migration & the Future of Pastoralist Territorial and based on access to water. transhumance: seasonal migration btw mountains & lowland pasturesFuture: declining form of agriculture bc of secondary role of traders is less prominent.Conflict: Governments want their lands.
7Intensive Subsistence Agriculture Where? In densely pop. Areas, farmers must work intensively to subsist on a parcel of landInheritance & Space? Ratio of farmers to the land is highwet rice dominates: small % of land but large yields.
10Other Rice Terms Sawah/ paddy: field where rice is grown Husks or chaff is where the rice seedlings areThreshing: process of of separating the heavier chaff from seedling.Winnowed is the remaining chaff being removedHull is a rice’s outer coveringDouble cropping: 2 crops in one year
11Intensive Subsistence: other than Rice Crops? Wheat, barley, corn, oats, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, hemp, tobaccoWhere? Dry colder climates (India’s interior & Northeast ChinaCrop rotation to prevent exhaustion of soilPros/Cons of communal vs privatization
12Plantation FarmingWhere? Topics & subtropics of LDCs but owned & operated by MDCsPurpose? Commercial use: cotton, sugarcane, coffee, rubber, tobacco, fruits and vegetables.Labor? Imported workersEconomy of the South prior to Civil War