Shifting Cultivation? Where? Practiced in Humid Low-Latitude (high temps & abundant rainfall) South America, Central/West Africa, & SE Asia Characteristics: lash & burn agriculture or notching & swidden (small villages) 3 yr life span Crops: rice, maize, cassava, millet, sorghum, yams, sugarcane, plantain
Ownership of Land in Shifting Who? Owned by the villages/ villagers designated patches of land. Future of Shifting Cultivation: tropics are be deforested to make way for logging, ranching, & cash crops. Critics: 1) commercial farming causes irreversible damage 2) global warming 3) upsets traditional cultures
Pastoral Nomadism What? Is a form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals Where? Dry climates that lack agriculture, SW Asia, N. Africa Uses? Provide milk, skins/ hair for clothing and tents Economics: size of their herd measurements of wealth and prestige, trade with subsistence farmers for grain, vegetables, fruits.
Migration & the Future of Pastoralist Territorial and based on access to water. transhumance: seasonal migration btw mountains & lowland pastures Future: declining form of agriculture bc of secondary role of traders is less prominent. Conflict: Governments want their lands.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture Where? In densely pop. Areas, farmers must work intensively to subsist on a parcel of land Inheritance & Space? Ratio of farmers to the land is high wet rice dominates: small % of land but large yields.
How is Rice Made?
How Rice is Grown
Other Rice Terms Sawah/ paddy: field where rice is grown Husks or chaff is where the rice seedlings are Threshing: process of of separating the heavier chaff from seedling. Winnowed is the remaining chaff being removed Hull is a rice’s outer covering Double cropping: 2 crops in one year
Intensive Subsistence: other than Rice Crops? Wheat, barley, corn, oats, sorghum, soybeans, cotton, hemp, tobacco Where? Dry colder climates (India’s interior & Northeast China Crop rotation to prevent exhaustion of soil Pros/Cons of communal vs privatization
Plantation Farming Where? Topics & subtropics of LDCs but owned & operated by MDCs Purpose? Commercial use: cotton, sugarcane, coffee, rubber, tobacco, fruits and vegetables. Labor? Imported workers Economy of the South prior to Civil War