Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Making a Living. What We Will Learn What are the different ways by which societies get their food? How do technology and environment influence."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 7 Making a Living
What We Will Learn What are the different ways by which societies get their food? How do technology and environment influence food getting strategies? How have humans adapted to their environments over the ages?
Five Major Food Gathering Strategies 1. Food collection: collecting vegetation, hunting animals, and fishing. 2. Horticulture: plant cultivation with simple tools and small plots of land, relying solely on human power. 3. Pastoralism: keeping domesticated animals and using their products as a major food source.
Five Major Food Gathering Strategies 4. Agriculture: horticulture using animal or mechanical power and some form of irrigation. 5. Industrialization: production of food through complex machinery.
Human Adaptation Humans adapt to climates in two ways: 1. Culturally - dietary patterns, levels of activities 2. Biologically - changes in the body
Characteristics of Food Collecting Societies Low population densities. Usually nomadic or semi nomadic rather than sedentary. Basic social unit is the family or band. Contemporary food-collecting peoples occupy the remote and marginally useful areas of the earth.
Neolithic Revolution Food Producing Societies Transition from food collection to food production began 10,000 years ago Humans began to cultivate crops and keep herds of animals. Humans were able to produce food rather than rely only on what nature produced.
Changes Resulting From Food Production Increased population. Populations became more sedentary. Stimulated a greater division of labor. Decline in overall health reduced the life expectancy from 26 to 19 years.
Why Food Production Led to Declining Health Foragers had a more balanced diet (plants and animal proteins). Farmers ran the risk of malnutrition or starvation if the crops failed. Increased population brought people into greater contact and made everyone more susceptible to parasitic and infectious diseases.
Horticulture The simplest type of farming, which involves the use of basic hand tools rather than plows or machinery driven by animals or engines. Horticulturalists produce low yields and generally do not have sufficient surpluses to develop extensive market systems. The land is neither irrigated nor enriched by the use of fertilizers.
Pastoralism Involves keeping domesticated herd animals and is found in areas of the world that cannot support agriculture because of inadequate terrain, soils, or rainfall. Associated with geographic mobility, because herds must be moved periodically to exploit seasonal pastures.
Pastoralism Two types of movement patterns: Transhumance - some of the men in a pastoral society move their livestock seasonally to different pastures while the women, children, and other men remain in permanent settlements. Nomadism - there are no permanent villages, and the whole social unit of men, women, and children moves the livestock to new pastures.
Agriculture Uses technology such as irrigation, fertilizers, and mechanized equipment. Produces high yields and supports large populations. Associated with permanent settlements, cities, and high levels of labor specialization.
Agriculture: Costs of Greater Productivity Can support many times more people per unit of land than the horticulturalist. Agriculturalists must devote vast numbers of hours of hard work prepare the land. Intensive agriculture requires a much higher investment of capital.
Industrialized Food Production Uses more powerful sources of energy. Requires: High levels of technology (such as tractors and combines) Mobile labor force Complex system of markets
Features of Four Major Food Procurement Categories ForagersHorticulturalist Population SizeSmallSmall/mod. Permanency of settlement Nomadic (or semi) Generally sedentary SurplusesMinimal TradeMinimal Labor specialization NoneMinimal Class differencesNoneMinimal
Features of Four Major Food Procurement Categories Pastoralist Intensive agriculture Population SizeSmallLarge Permanency of settlement Nomadic (or semi)Permanent SurplusesModerateUsual TradeModerateVery important Labor specialization MinimalHighest degree Class differencesModerateHighest degree
1. _______ is a basic form of plant cultivation using simple tools, small plots of land, and relies on human power. a) Pastoralism b) Horticulture c) Food collection d) Agriculture
Answer: b Horticulture is a basic form of plant cultivation using simple tools, small plots of land, and relies on human power.
2. The gathering of wild vegetation and the hunting of small game is the strategy of: a) horticulture. b) pastoralism. c) agriculture. d) food collection.
Answer: d The gathering of wild vegetation and the hunting of small game is the strategy of food collection.
3. It is not until ________, some 10, 000 years ago, that human beings began producing food by horticulture or animal husbandry. a) the industrial revolution b) the French revolution c) the neolithic revolution d) the aquaculture revolution
Answer: c It is not until the neolithic revolution some 10, 000 years ago, that human beings began producing food by horticulture or animal husbandry.
4. Traveling with their animals, ________ do not have permanent settlements, and the whole social unit moves with their animals. a) agriculturalists b) food collectors c) horticulturalists d) nomads
Answer: d Traveling with their animals, nomads do not have permanent settlements, and the whole social unit moves with their animals.
5. Because of its reliance on animal power and technology, ________ differs from horticulture, and is a more intensive and efficient system. a) horticulture b) nomadism c) agriculture d) pastoralism
Answer: c Because of its reliance on animal power and technology, agriculture differs from horticulture, and is a more intensive and efficient system.