3FORAGERS or GATHERERS AND HUNTERS Subsistence derived from a combination of gathering, hunting and fishingForaging economies still survive because their environment is not suitable for food production.A contemporary forager from Australia’s Cape York peninsula collects eggs from the nest of a magpie goose.
4Correlates of Foraging Band-organization (30-50) people -- flexibility allows for seasonal adjustments.Mobile, at least seasonally nomadic -- Pattern of congregation and dispersalBands flexible in composition.No permanent attachment to group or land.Access to resources held communally.Individual ownership of food, tools and other goods but strong pressure to share.Ju/’hoansi (!Kung)
5Little difference in wealth, few material goods Social and political organization are simple -- at most, headman without authoritySocial control is informalLimited means of food storageNo full-time specialistsLittle warfare (conflict between groups)The Agta (Philippines) live by hunting, gathering, fishing and exchange with lowland farmers
6Typical gender-based division of labor with women gathering and men hunting and fishing, with gathering contributing more to the group diet.All foraging societies distinguish among their members according to age and gender, but are relatively egalitarian (making only minor distinctions in status)
7Wide Variation in characteristics across foraging societies degree of dependence on hunting vs. gatheringgender roles/ gender statustechnologies usedPolitical organization
8Worldwide distribution of recent hunter-gatherers. ForagingWorldwide distribution of recent hunter-gatherers.
9recent foragers have often been used to understand prehistoric humans CaveatsNow in least desirable environments: tundra, desert, rain forestCultural changes in last 20,000 yearsNatural environment has changedAffected by other people
10Horticulturenon-intensive plant cultivation, based on the use of simple tools and cyclical, non-continuous use crop lands.Slash-and-burn or swidden cultivation and shifting cultivation are alternative labels for horticulture.About 300 million people depended primarily on swidden cultivation for subsistence. slash-and-burn horticulture Ranomafana, Madagascar.
11Women planting taro in New Guinea HorticulturistsSlash-and-burn agricultureCyclical processBurned vegetation, ashes nourish landLand left fallow for several yearsTend to be less nomadic and more sedentary than foragersCultures include:YanomamöTsembagaIroquoisWomen planting taro in New Guinea
12Groups range from 100 to more than 5,000 Relatively settled, but nomadic within limitsLocation of villages is shifted periodically to keep the near areas being cultivated but even so, villages usually remain in each location for several consecutive years.
13South American farmers South American farmers. Women tend to be the main producers in horticultural societies.
14Horticultural Adaptations Gardening, using tools that require human powerDomesticated plantsShift in emphasis on role of women in kinshipSedentismIncreased labor intensitySurplusesSocial stratificationnotions of private property, and ownership of landwarfare
16Pastoralists Subsistence based on care of domesticated animals Migration follows herdsExamples: Bedouins, Nuer Lapps,East African cattle complexSupplement diet with gardensLargely eat blood and milk from cattle, not meatBedouins
17PastoralismA female pastoralist who is a member of the Kirgiz ethnic group in Xinjiang Province, China.
18Pastoral Nomadismall members of the pastoral society follow the herd throughout the year. (Iran)
19TranshumancePart of the society follows the herd, while the other part maintains a home village (this is usually associated with some cultivation by the pastoralists).
20East African cattle complex members of such economies may get agricultural produce through trade or their own subsidiary cultivation
21Agriculturecultivation involving continuous use of crop land more labor-intensive than horticulture due to needs generated by farm animals and crop land formationDomesticated animals are commonly used in agriculture, mainly to ease labor and provide manure.Irrigation frees cultivation from seasonal domination.Egyptian shaduf
22AgricultureIrrigated and terraced rice fields used by the rice farmers of Luzon in the Philippines.
23Agriculture: Costs and Benefits Agriculture is far more labor-intensive and capital-intensive than horticulture, but does not necessarily yield more than horticulture does (under ideal conditions).Agriculture’s long-term production (per area) is far more stable than horticulture’s.Intensified food production is associated with sedentism and rapid population increase.Larger, permanent populationsand organization of labourresults in a centralized politicalstructure – statesHigh degree of specializationHierarchical social structure
24The Cultivation Continuum In reality, non-industrial economies do not always fit cleanly into the distinct categories given above, thus it is useful to think in terms of a cultivation continuum.Sectorial fallowing: a plot of land may be planted two-to-three years before shifting (as with the Kuikuru, South American manioc horticulturalists) then allowed to lie fallow for a period of years.